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Anatomy Terminology template

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AnatomyWhat things are, and where they are located.
PhysiologyHow those things work.
EpitheliumUsed as linings or coverings. Protects, absorbs, and/or secretes.
SimpleOne layer of epithelium.
StratifiedMore than one layer.
PseudostratifiedOne layer that looks like more, but really isn't. Fake layers.
TransitionalFlexible layer that can stretch. Best identified by having bi nucleated cells.
GlandularLayers found in glands.
SquamousScale-like shape.
CuboidalSquare-like shape.
ColumnarColumn-like shape.
Tight JunctionGlues and seals gaps between cells. Impermeable.
Gap JunctionOpen channel between two cells used for communication and intracellular transport.
Spot DesmosomeGlues cells together and keeps them anchored.
Belt DesmosomeRopes around cells keeping them together.
CiliaApical modification. Hairlike projections used for movement.
MicrovilliApical modification used to increase surface area, and/or move things across the surface of the epithelium.
Basal LaminaBottom layer of cells that separates epithelium from CT. Stains really dark.
KeratinNon-living protein layer used for waterproofing. Stains really dark.
Goblet CellAlso called a gland. Used for secreting - hold mucous. Doesn't stain well.
EndocrineSecretions are released straight into the blood stream.
ExocrineSecretions released into blood via tube/duct systems.
SerousA more water-like secretion. Less thick.
MucousThicker secretion. Not as watery.
TubularTube-like shaped gland.
AlveolarSack-like shaped gland, like the alveoli of the lungs.
MerocrineCell pushes secretions out into duct via vesicles.
HolocrineCells with secretions are shed into the duct, and then are replaced.
ApocrineSecretion where the portions of cells that have secretions are pinched off into the duct.
LateralThe sides of the cell.
ApicalThe top of the cell. Can be referred to as vertical also.
BasalThe bottom of the cell.
Number of Layers
Shape of Layers
Types of Secretions
Secretion Consistancy
Shape of Gland
Function of Gland
Connective Tissue
MatrixSolidity of connective tissue.
SolidExample of solid matrix: bone.
Semi-SolidExample of semi-solid matrix: cartilage.
FluidExample of fluid matrix: blood.
FibersString-like substances found inside the matrix.
CollagenThick fibers, very strong.
ElasticThin fibers, very stretchy.
ReticularCobweb-like fibers. Very thin.
Classification of CT
CartilageSelf explanatory, contains semi-solid matrix.
BoneSelf explanatory, contains solid matrix.
BloodSelf explanatory, contains fluid matrix.
CT ProperClassification of CT if it doesn't fit into blood, bone, or cartilage.
CT ProperUsually made of fibers, is found between/connects other CT together.
Loose AreolarHas a decent amount of fibers arranged very loosely and randomly. Usually has a lot of white blood cells.
FibroblastCells that create fibers.
MacrophageWhite blood cells that use phagocytosis to fight off invading substances.
Mast CellCell that releases chemicals and substances during allergic reactions
AdiposeExactly like loose areolar only it has lots of fat cells in it.
Dense IrregularLots of collagen fibers, very dense. Fibers go in random directions/entertwine.
Dense RegularLots of collagen fibers, very dense. Fibers go all in one direction, very uniform.
ReticularRare type of CT proper. Cobweb-like, provides framework for soft tissue organs. Has lots of reticular fibers.
CartilageLatin root word for this is chondro. Does interstitial growth, and is avascular. One of the four types of CT.
Cartilage Cells
ChondrocyteCells that maintain cartilage.
ChrondroblastCells that create and rebuild cartilage.
PerichondriumDouble-layered CT that surrounds cartilage of developing bone.
Types of Cartilage
HyalineContains lots of collagen fibers, which are very uniform in pattern. Is usually surrounded by perichondrium.
ElasticSelf-explanatory, has lots of elastic fibers.
FibrocartilageContains lots of collagen fibers, but unlike hyaline, its arranged in a more loose, spongy fashion.
BoneLatin root word for this is osteo. Bone supports, protects, is used for movement, and makes blood.
Types of Bone
Compact BoneHard and dense bone that is made up of haversian units.
OsteocyteBone matrix maintaining cell.
CanaliculiVery small canals that connect lacuna, or rather, osteocytes.
Haversian CanalThe big central canal of each haversian unit.
Volkmann's CanalMedium sized canals that connect haversian canals.
LamellaeOne layer of bone/solid matrix.
CircumferentialRound rings of lamellae.
InterstitialStraight lines/rows of lamellae.
Spongy BoneThe spongy looking stuff inside bone. Contains red bone marrow in the epiphysis, yellow in the diaphysis. Also called cancellous bone.
TrabeculaeThe rough part of spongy bone that forms the holes in which bone marrow is found.
Parts of a Bone
PeriosteumOuter layer of bone.
EndosteumInside layer of bone
DiaphysisSkinny shaft of bone. Contains yellow bone marrow.
EpiphysisEnds of bones. Contains red bone marrow.
Bone Developement
OsteogenesisBeginning of (creating) bone.
OsteoblastCreates and rebuilds bone matrix. Will become an osteocyte when trapped.
OsteoclastKills or destroys bone matrix. Frees trapped osteocytes.
OsteocyteMaintains bone matrix, and gets stuck in the lacuna.
Endochondrial OssificationForms most bones, mostly long bones. Replaces cartilage from the inside out.
Bone CollarA supporting model that helps the bone keep its shape as it grows, kind of like a mold. Also called periosteal bone.
Epiphyseal LineCartilage between the primary and secondary ossification centers. Also called the growth plate.
Intramembranous OssificationForms flat bones, such as the top of the skull. Bone are formed in sheet like layers.
FontanelsSoft spots where bone has not yet been created or is still in the process of being created.
Important Other Words
LacunaHoles in matrix where cells are found, such as osteocytes.
Interstitial GrowthGrows from within - like inside out.
HydroxyapatiteCalcium phosphite
Yellow MarrowMore fatty. Inactive marrow, but will make blood cells in emergencies.
Red MarrowActive marrow that continually makes red and white blood cells.
AvascularContaining no veins or blood vessels.
EXTRAIn case I get more words and I need to write them down.

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