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The smallest functional units of matter that form all chemical substancesAtoms
Each atom is composed of these 3 thingsProton // Neutrons// Electrons
Have a positive charge & found in nucleusProtons
Neutral charged found in nucleusNeutrons
Have a negative charge & are found in orbitalsElectrons
Max electron limit for shell 12 electrons
Max electron limit for shell 2,3,4,etc8 electrons
Electrons in outer shell available to combine with other atoms:Valence Electrons
Atomic# equals number of:Protons and eletrons
Has same number as protons if net charge is 0Electrons
Atomic mass is the SUM of:Protons and neutrons
Can be determined by subtracting atomic# from atomic massNeutrons
Multiple forms of an element that differ in the number of neutronsIsotopes
All living organisms are made up of these 4 elements:Hydrogen // Oxygen // Nitrogen // Carbon (CHON)
Occur primarily in waterHydrogen // Oxygen (h20)
Found in proteinsNitrogen
Building block of all living matterCarbon
Atoms join together by these 3 bondsCovalent // Hydrogen // Ionic
Bonds having atoms sharing a pair of electronsCovalent Bonds
This is an atom or molecule that has gained or lost 1 or more electronsIon
Forms between atoms of DIFFERENT electronegativityPolar Covalent Bond
Forms between atoms with SIMILAR electronegativityNonpolar Covalent Bond
The _____ from one polar molecule is attracted to an electronegative atom of another atomHydrogen Atom
Ionic bond with a net + chargeCations
Ionic bond with a net - chargeAnions
Occurs when a cation binds to an anion by electrostatic attractionIonic Bonds
An atom with a single, unpaired electron is known as:Free Radical
Can be inactivated when molecules donate electrons to themFree Radicals
The arrangement of atoms will determine the:Shape of resulting molecule
_____ will determine its physical propertiesShape of moelcule

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