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Cell Membrane Transport template



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Cell MembraneControls what enters and leaves the cell. Also called the plasma membrane.
Fluid Mosaic ModelThe fluid part describes the fact that the membrane can move, the phospholipids and other parts of the membrane are close together but are not in a fixed position. The mosaic part describes the face that the molecules of the cell membrane are arranged similar to a mosaic.
Phospholipids in the Cell MembraneArranged in two layers (also called a bilayer) Provide the structure for the cell membrane Act as a barrier between the inside of the cell and outside of the cell Contains the intracellular structures and organelles
Proteins in the Cell MembraneMost are embedded in phospholipid bilayer Different types with different functions such as: Transport specific cells across the membrane Control chemical reactions Transmit signals from other cells in the organism
Cholesterol in the Cell MembraneEmbedded in phospholipid bilayer Helps control the fluidity of the membrane High temperatures= membrane is less fluid Low temperatures= membrane is more fluid
Carbohydrates in the Cell MembraneStick out of the cell, attached to phospholipids and proteins Identifies the cell to other cells as belonging to the organism
ConcentrationThe amount of a substance in a given volume.
DiffusionThe movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration.
EquilibriumWhen a system experiences no overall, or net, change; when all competing influences are balanced.
Semi-permeable MembraneA membrane that allows only certain substances to pass through it and not others.
Active TransportEmbedded proteins bring small substances across the cell membrane, but the substances are moved from a lower concentration area to a higher concentration area. This requires the cell to expend energy to move the substances.
Bulk TransportTransports larger particles, fluids or solids across the cell membrane. Requires energy input from the cell.
Passive TransportTransportation of small substances across the cell membrane can be achieved by passive transport. Does not require the cell to use energy to move the substances.
Simple DiffusionCertain substances can pass through the cell membrane. These substances move from a high concentration to a lower concentration until the concentration of the substance is the same on both sides of the cell membrane.
Facilitated DiffusionProteins embedded in the cell membrane move some substances across the cell membrane Some proteins provide a channel for the substance to travel through Other proteins bind to the substance, move it across the cell membrane, and then release it (such as glucose)
OsmosisWater diffuses across the cell membrane to balance the concentration of water and a substance on both sides of the cell membrane Movement of water, across a semi-permeable membrane, from a high concentration to a lower concentration of water
EndocytosisMoves substances from outside the cell into the cell. The cell membrane wraps around the substance outside the cell It pinches together forming a vacuole that contains the substance and seals the cell membrane The vacuole, with the substance inside, can move around the inside of the cell ex. endocytosis is used to bring protein molecules into the cell.
ExocytosisMoves substances from inside the cell to the outside of the cell. A vesicle, inside the cell, that contains the substance fuses with the inside of the cell membrane Once the fusing is complete the substance is released outside of the cell ex. exocytosis is used to remove waste, and to send chemical signals to other cells.



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