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Cellular Biology template



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MacromoleculesLarge molecules made up of smaller molecules. Many are made up of polymers.
Four categories of organic macromoleculesCarbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
PolymersLong chain like molecules composed of many smaller linked molecules called monomers.
CarbohydratesMacromolecules that contain sugars, starches and cellulose. Stores energy. Gives structure to cells.
MonomerA small molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymer
MonosaccharidesKnown as simple sugars. Quick energy for cells. ex. glucose.
DisaccharidesTwo monosaccharide molecules bonded together. ex white table sugar or sucrose. Quick energy for cells.
PolysaccharidesPolymers of monosaccharide monomers bonded together. Also known as complex carbohydrates.
LipidsOrganic macromolecules that are insoluble or do not dissolve in water.
HydrophobicRepels or does not mix with water.
HydrophilicAttracts or mixes with water.
ExtracellularOutside of the cell or cells.
IntracellularInside of the cells
OrganicRefers to both molecules that contain Carbon and Hydrogen as well as living things.
ProteinsPolymers made up of monomers called amino acids. Performs many jobs in a cell including carrying oxygen in the blood. Essential to life.
Nucleic AcidsPolymers made up of monomers called nucleotides. Two types are DNA and RNA.
PhospholipidsConsist of two fatty acids and a phosphate group bonded to glycerol. Major part of the cell membrane.
TriglyceridesThree fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule. Stores energy.
Saturated fatSolid at room temperature. Ex. butter and bacon fat.
Unsaturated fatLiquid at room temperature. Ex. Olive oil.
SteroidsCholesterol is a steroid and in animal cells is used to create other steroids like sex hormones testosterone and estrogen.
Amino AcidsMolecules that contain a central bonded carbon bonded to hydrogen, a carboxyl group, an amino group and side chain.
DNADeoxyribonucleic Acid. Double stranded helix or spiral. Stores genetic information that tells each cell what protein to create and how to make them. Nitrogenous base includes: Adenine Cytosine Guanine Thymine
RNARibonucleic Acid. Single stranded helix molecule that participates in protein creation in a cell. Nitrogenous base includes: Adenine Cytosine Guanine Uracil
DenaturationWhen a protein is damaged enough that it is no longer able to perform its function.
NucleotidesMolecules that contain a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogenous base.
AdenineNitrogenous base for DNA and RNA.
CytosineNitrogenous base for DNA and RNA.
GuanineNitrogenous base for DNA and RNA.
ThymineNitrogenous base for DNA.
UracilNitrogenous base for RNA.



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