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Circulation template

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Arteries-Carry blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. -Tick walls made of elastic fibres and smooth muscle, allow them to stretch when blood is passing through. -No valves, they aren't needed due to the bloods high pressure. -Small lumen, allows pressure to stay constant. -Endothelium is folded allowing stretching. -They steach in high pressure and recoil in lower pressure. -Contain a lot of collagen.
Veins-take blood back to the heart under lower pressure. -Close to the muscles, this helps with blood flow as the muscle contacts. -Wider lumen than arteries, have less elastic fibres and smooth muscles. -Have valves to prevent back flow -HAve less collagen than arteries. -All veins carry deoxygenated blood (OTHER than the pulmonary veins which carry oxygenated blood from lungs to the heart)
Capillaries-Smallest blood vessels -Cell wall is only one cell thick. -Where substances are exchanged by diffusion between blood and body cells. This is known as the metabolic rate. -Network of capillaries are found in tissue that increases surface area, these networks are where metabolic rate happens. These networks are called capillary beds.
Atrial systole-Atria fill with blood from the vena cava. -Pulmonary vies contact forcing blood through the atrioventricular valves into the veins. -Atria contract, Ventricels relax.
Ventricular systole- Ventricles contact forcing blood up through the semi lunar valves and into the aorta and pulmonary artery, -Force of contraction closes the atrioventricular valves preventing blood from flowing back into the aorta. -Atria relax, Ventricles contact.
Diastole- As ventricels relax, blood pressure drops causing semi lunar valves to close. -Atria start to fill with blood as pressure increases. -Blood starts to go into the atria again.
Mass flowMovement down a concentration gradient of a liquid or gas and all particles it contains
LumenSpace inside a hollow organ such as the gut or a blood vessel
Cardiac outputAmount of blood the heart pumps through the circulatory stayed in a minute
Stroke volumeVolume of blood pumped by the left ventricle in each heart beat.
Heart rateNumber of times heart beats per minute
Steps in Atherosclerosis1) The endothelium becomes damaged and dysfunctional. This damage can result from high blood pressure or from toxins in cigarette smoke in the blood stream. 2) Once the inner lignin of the artery is breached there is an inflammatory response. White blood cells leave blood vessel and move into the artery wall. These cells accumulate chemicals from the blood, particularly cholesterol. A fatty deposit builds up called an atheroma. 3) Calcium salts and fibrous tissue also build up at the site, resulting in a hard swelling called a plaque on inner wall of the artery. The build-up of fibrous tissue means artery wall loses some of its elasticity. 4) Plaques cause lumen of artery to become narrow. This makes it more ifficult for heart to pump blood which can end to rise in blood pressure. Now positive feedback is building up. Place lead to high blood pressure, thi raised blood pressure makes it more likely for plaques to form.
Stages of blood clotting1) Platelets and damaged tissue release a protein called thromboplastin. 2) thromboplastin activates an enzyme that catalyse the conversion of the protein prothrombin to an Andy me called thrombin. (Other protein factors such as Citamin K and calcium ions must be present in the blood plasma for this conversion to happen). 3) Thrombin then catalyse the conversion of the soluble plasma protein, fibrogen into Teh insoluble protein fibrin. 4) A mesh of fibrin forms that traps more platelets and red blood cells to form a clot.
Risk factor of CVD; Modifiable risk -DIET-A diet high in saturate fat increases the risk, as it increases blood cholesterol, which increases atheroma formation. -A diet high in salt also increases the risk, as it increases the risk of high blood pressure.
Risk factor of CVD; Modifiable SMOKING-Carbon monoxide combines with haemoglobin reducing amount of oxygen in the blood. Reducing oxygen in tissues, if heart doesn't get enough oxygen, heart attack's may happen. -Nicotine makes platelets sticky increasing chance of blood clot. -Decreases antioxidants in blood, these protect cells from damage meaning they are more likely to get an atheroma.
Risk factor of CVD; Modifiable risk HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE-Increases damage to artery walls, increases risk of atheroma formation. -Things increasing blood pressure; High alcohol intake, stress and diet.
Risk factor of CVD; Non-modifiable GENETICS-Some people inherit particular alleles that make them more likely to have high blood pressure or cholesterol.
Risk factor of CVD; Modifiable risk INACTIVITY-Lack of exercise increases the risk as it increases blood pressure.
Risk factor of CVD; Non-modifiable AGERisk increases with age. This is partly because plaque can build up very slowly over time eventually leading to CVD.
Risk factor of CVD; Non-modifiable GENDER-Men are 3x more likely to suffer it than pre-menopausal women. This may be due to the different levels of oestrogen in men which may lead to higher levels in blood cholesterol.
RiskThe probability of occurrence of some unwanted event or outcome
Energy budget-Organisms need a supply of energy, so that they can grow, move and reproduce. -Energy budget is a term used to describe the amount of energy taken in by an organism and the amount used by the organism. -Ideally intake should be the same as outtake so its balanced. -Unballanced can affect a persons weight.
Consequences of obesity-It increases risk of coronary heart disease and stroke, even without other risk factors being present. -The more excess fat you carry, especially around the middle, the greater the risk to the heart. -Also increases risk of type II diabetes (non-insulin dependant diabeties). Which in turn, increases risk of coronary heart disease.
Crabohydrates- Most carbohydrates are larger complex molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharides.
Monosaccharides-Single sugar unit with a general formula (CH20)n. Where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. -HAve between 3 and 7 carbon atoms, where most common is 6. -Hexose sugar has a ring structure formed by five carbons and oxygen atoms. The sixth carbon is above or below the ring. -Monosaccharides provide a rapid source of energy. they are absorbed and require little or no change before being used in cellular respiration.
Disaccharides-Complex carbohydrate -HAs to be digested into a monosaccharide before being absorbed, so provides a slow release of energy. -Examples include sucrose, maltose and lactose. -They do not cause a swing in blood sugar levels unlike monosaccharides
Polysaccharides-Polymers made up from simple sugar monomers joined by glycosidic bonds into long chains. -Each sugar monomer is joined to the chain in a condemnation reaction with a water molecule being released in the reaction. -Three main types of Plysaccharides found in food: -starch -Celulose -Glycogen
Starch and glycogen as an energy store;-They are suitable for energy store as they are compact molecules with low solubility in water. This means they do not affect the concentration of water in the cytoplasm and so do not affect the movement of water in and out of the cell by osmosis.
StarchAlpha glucose -Glycosidic bonds - Split into amylose and amylopectin -Amylose has 1,4 glycosidic bonds and is coiled -Amylopectin has 1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds and is branched -Compact molecule -Starch is branched/helical -Each monomer has the same rotation (use for when comparing to cellulose)
Cellulose-Beta glucose -Linear/ straight chain -Every other monomer is rotated 180 degrees -Has 1,4 glycosidic bonds made from condensation reactions -Intermolecular Hydrogen bonding -It is insoluble in the human gut, it is important for moving material through the digestive track.
Glycogen-Not coiled/ Branched -1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds (1,6 creates side branches) -Contain glucose -Made of many alpha glucose monomers -Compact structure -Used by bacteria, fungi and animals instead of starch as an energy store.
Lipids-Organic compounds that are fatty acids or derivative. -Insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents like ethanol. -Most lipids are triglycerides.
Triglycerides- Made of one glycerol with threee fatty acids attached which are formed by condensation reaction. Joined by ESTER BONDS. -Fatty acids have long hydrocarbon tails which are hydrophobic making lipids insoluble in water.
Saturated fats-Contain fatty acid chains with max amount of hydrogen. -Single C-C bonds -Straight chains -Closely packed chains -Stong intermolecular bonds between triglycerides mean they are solid at room temperature.
Unsaturated fats-Monounaturted fats have one double bond between two of the carbon atoms in each fatty acid chain. -Ployunsaturated fats have a number of double bonds. Have a C=C bond. -Contain fatty acids -Chain has 'Kinks' -These 'Kinks' prevent hydrocarbon chains from packing close together resulting in weaker intermolecular bonding so they are liquid at room temperature.
Low density Lipoproteins (LDL)-Larger than HDL -Circulate in Teh blood and combine with membrane receptors before being taken up by the cell membrane -Excess LDL overloads the receptors and blood cholesterol levels become high. -These LDL may be depositied in artery walls forming atheroma. -BAD FATS, STAY IN THE BLOOD
High Density Lipoproteins-Smaller, more dense than LDL -Higher percentage of protein to cholesterol -Transport cholesterol from the body to the liver where it is broken down -This lowers blood cholesterol levels and helps remove fatty plaques of atherosclerosis/atheroma.
What else do lipids provide-Source of essential fatty acids -These make up the fatty acids that the body is not able to make itself. -Essentai part of the diet to avoid deficiency decreases including lack of fat-soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K)
Treatments for Cardiovascular disease (CVD)-ACE inhibitors -Calcium channel blockers -Diuretics -Stating -Anticoagulants
How ACE inhibitors work-Antiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. -Are effective hypostensive drugs which reduce the synthesis of antiostensin II. -this hormone causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels to help control blood pressure. -The ACE inhibitors prevent the hormone being produced from the inactive antiotensin I, therefore reducing vasoconstriction and lowering blood pressure.
Side Effecs of ACE inhibitors-Dry cough -Abnormal heart rhythms -Dizziness due to rapid lowering of blood pressure -Reducign function of the kidney -Anyone with kidney disease, it may reduce the risk of kidney failure. -Patients intolerant to ACE inhibitors will e prescribed an alternative drug that blocks antiotensin II receptors
How Calcium Channel blockers work-Are antihypertensive drugs that block the calcium channels in the muscle cells in the lining of arteries. -For the muscle to contract, calcium must pass through these channels into the muscle cell. -Failuer of calcium to enter the cell prevents contraction of the muscle, the blood vessel do not constrict, this lowers the blood pressure.
Side effects of Calcium channel blockers- Headaches -Dizziness -Swolen ankles due to build up of fluid in the legs -Abnormal heart rhythms -Flushing red in the face -Constipation -In people with heart failure, taking some types of calcium channel blockers can make symptoms worse or be fatal, so they may not be prescribed to people who have had a heart attack.
How Diuretics work-Increase the volume of urine produced by the kidneys and therefore ris the body of excess fluids and salt. -This leads to a decrease in blood plasma volume and cardiac output, which lowers blood pressure.
Side effects of Diuretics-Dizziness -Nausea -Muscle cramps.
How cholesterol lowering drugs work-Individuals diagnosed wit high cholesterol who have CVD or a 20% chance of developing CVD in the next 10 years may be prescribed cholesterol lowering drugs. -The most commonly prescribed are STATINS -Statins work by inhibiting an enzyme involved in the production of LDL cholesterol by the liver.
Side effects of cholesterol lowering drugs (statins)-Tiredness -Disturbed sleep -Feelign ice -Vomiting -Diarrhoea -Headache -Muscle weakness
Diet can be used to help reduce th risk of CVD-Its should include the following; -Energy balance -Reduced saturated fats -More polyunsaturated fats -Reduced cholesterol -Reduced salt -More non-starch polysaccharides such as pectin.
Anticoagulant and platelet inhibitory drugs-The tendency for platelet aggregation ad clotting is reduced by platelet inhibitory drugs and anticoagulant drugs. -Asprin reduces the stickiness of platelets and the likelihood of clots forming. -Some people are allergic to asprin and for others it is not effective or only partially effective. -In these cases an alternative platelet inhibitory drug, clopogrel may be used. -A combined treatment involving a daily does of asprin and clopodogre can have a dramatic effect.
Warfarin is an anticoagulant drug-It interferes with the production of Vitamin K and therefore it affects the synthesis of clotting factors. -It can be taken orally for extended periods of time to prevent clotting. -The benefits may be greater than with sprin for some patients bust the risk of bleeding is higher than with asprin.
Benefits and risks of WarfarinBenefits; -Can be used to treat people who already have blood clots or CVD -Prevent existing clots getting bigger, prevent new blood clots forming but cant remove old clots. Risks; -Can cause excessive bleeding if a person is injured -Allergic reactions -Osteophorosis -Swellign of tissue (Oedema)
How asprin works- Prevents platelets clumping togetherness to form blood clot. -Reduced the formation of blood clots, reducing the chance of clot blocking the vessel
Benefits and Risks of AsprinBenefits; -Can be used on people who already have clots and CVD Risks; -Rashes -ANusea -Diarrhoea -Liver functioning problems -Excessive bleeding

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