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Consciousness template



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QuestionsAnswers
ConsciousnessThe awareness of ourselves and our environment
Selective AttentionThe focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimuli
The cocktail-party effectTuning in one message while filtering out others nearby
Inattentional BlindnessThe inability to see an object or person in our midst
Change BlindnessForm of inattentional blindness in which two thirds of individuals giving directions failed to notice a change in the individual asking for directions
Selective AttentionFocusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
Circadian Rhythm24 hour cycle of sleep and wakefulness. Biological clock. Can be altered by artificial light which triggers the suprachiasmatic nucleus to decrease melatonin in the morning and increase it at nightfall
Sleep StagesRepeating 5-stage sleep pattern that occurs over 90 minutes
Sleep Stages 1-2High amplitude, slow, regular wave form. Theta waves (5-8 cps)
Sleep Stages 3-4Brain activity slows down. Large amplitude, slow waves. Delta waves (1.5-4 cps). Occurs mainly in first half of night.
Stage 5REM sleep. Low amplitude, fast, regular waves. Beta waves (15-40 cps). Occurs mainly in second half of night.
Stage 1Transition into sleep
Stage 2Beginning of slow-wave sleep. Marked by sleep spindles
Stage 3Marked by appearance of some very large, slow waves. Delta waves
Stage 4Mostly delta waves
REM SleepRapid eye movement sleep. Dreams. Fast, small waves. Intense brain activity.
Why Do We Sleep?Protection (evolution). Brain restoration and repair. Store and rebuild memories of day. Promotes creative problem-solving. Encourages growth (secretion of HGH)
Sleep DeprivationFatigue, impairment of concentration, creativity, communication, can cause obesity, hypertension, suppressed immune system, irritability and slowed performance.
NonsomniacsPeople who normally sleep very little
InsomniaPersistant inability to fall asleep
NarcolepsyOverpowering urge to fall asleep that can occur at any time
Sleep ApneaFailure to breathe when asleep
Night TerrorsSudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by psychological reactions that occur during stage 4 sleep. Does not wake up, does not recall. Children
Sleep WalkingUsually harmless, does not recall the next day. Stage 4 disorder. Runs in families
Sleep TalkingLike sleepwalking, runs in families
REM ParalysisWhen in REM sleep major muscle groups are strongly inhibited by neurons in our brain stem
Clonic JerkFalling asleep, snap to attention, jolted awake
Hypnagogic ImageryOccurs as our normal waking consciousness recedes and our cognitions lose conscious direction and take on a "life of their own"
Manifest ContentElements of a dream that are consciously experienced and remembered
Latent ContentUnconscious thoughts, wishes and urges that are hidden in the manifest content of a dream
Information ProcessingDreams help us sort out the day's events and consolidate our memories
Physiological FunctionRegular brain stimulation from REM sleep may develop and preserve neural pathways
Activation-SynthesisREM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories which our sleeping brains weave into stories
Cognitive DevelopmentDream content reflects dreamer's cognitive development
Divided-Consciousness TheoryHypnotism causes a split in consciousness
Social Influence TheorySubjects get so caught up in playing the part of a hypnotized person that they ignore other aspects of their state
AddictionA craving for a chemical substance despite its adverse physical and psychological consequences. Addictive drugs do not always corrupt quickly. Recovery can be done alone. Addiction is different than regular pleasure-seeking behaviours.
Psychoactive DrugChemical substance that alters perceptions and mood (alters consciousness)
DepressantsReduce neural activity and slow body functions
Attentional Myopia : Alcohol Myopia ModelAttentional system becomes short sighted-focused on what is right in front of us
OpiatesDepress neural activity, relieve pain, produce feelings of euphoria
StimulantsExcite neural activity and speed body functions
Flow StateThe experience of being fully engaged in what you are doing



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