Learn about sleep, wakefulness and consciousness with these science flash cards
There are 43 flash cards in this set (8 pages to print.)
1. Print out the cards.
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Sample flash cards in this set:
|The awareness of ourselves and our environment
|The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimuli
|The cocktail-party effect
|Tuning in one message while filtering out others nearby
|The inability to see an object or person in our midst
|Form of inattentional blindness in which two thirds of individuals giving directions failed to notice a change in the individual asking for directions
|Focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
|24 hour cycle of sleep and wakefulness. Biological clock. Can be altered by artificial light which triggers the suprachiasmatic nucleus to decrease melatonin in the morning and increase it at nightfall
|Repeating 5-stage sleep pattern that occurs over 90 minutes
|Sleep Stages 1-2
|High amplitude, slow, regular wave form. Theta waves (5-8 cps)
|Sleep Stages 3-4
|Brain activity slows down. Large amplitude, slow waves. Delta waves (1.5-4 cps). Occurs mainly in first half of night.
|REM sleep. Low amplitude, fast, regular waves. Beta waves (15-40 cps). Occurs mainly in second half of night.
|Transition into sleep
|Beginning of slow-wave sleep. Marked by sleep spindles
|Marked by appearance of some very large, slow waves. Delta waves
|Mostly delta waves
|Rapid eye movement sleep. Dreams. Fast, small waves. Intense brain activity.
|Why Do We Sleep?
|Protection (evolution). Brain restoration and repair. Store and rebuild memories of day. Promotes creative problem-solving. Encourages growth (secretion of HGH)
|Fatigue, impairment of concentration, creativity, communication, can cause obesity, hypertension, suppressed immune system, irritability and slowed performance.
|People who normally sleep very little
|Persistant inability to fall asleep
|Overpowering urge to fall asleep that can occur at any time
|Failure to breathe when asleep
|Sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by psychological reactions that occur during stage 4 sleep. Does not wake up, does not recall. Children
|Usually harmless, does not recall the next day. Stage 4 disorder. Runs in families
|Like sleepwalking, runs in families
|When in REM sleep major muscle groups are strongly inhibited by neurons in our brain stem
|Falling asleep, snap to attention, jolted awake
|Occurs as our normal waking consciousness recedes and our cognitions lose conscious direction and take on a "life of their own"
|Elements of a dream that are consciously experienced and remembered
|Unconscious thoughts, wishes and urges that are hidden in the manifest content of a dream
|Dreams help us sort out the day's events and consolidate our memories
|Regular brain stimulation from REM sleep may develop and preserve neural pathways
|REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories which our sleeping brains weave into stories
|Dream content reflects dreamer's cognitive development
|Hypnotism causes a split in consciousness
|Social Influence Theory
|Subjects get so caught up in playing the part of a hypnotized person that they ignore other aspects of their state
|A craving for a chemical substance despite its adverse physical and psychological consequences. Addictive drugs do not always corrupt quickly. Recovery can be done alone. Addiction is different than regular pleasure-seeking behaviours.
|Chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood (alters consciousness)
|Reduce neural activity and slow body functions
|Attentional Myopia : Alcohol Myopia Model
|Attentional system becomes short sighted-focused on what is right in front of us
|Depress neural activity, relieve pain, produce feelings of euphoria
|Excite neural activity and speed body functions
|The experience of being fully engaged in what you are doing