Printable Flash Cards
Dairy Product Processes template



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QuestionsAnswers
what is pasteurization?a process applied to a product with the object of minimizing possible health hazards arising form pathogenic microorganisms associated by milk with heat treatment, which is consistent with chemical, physical, and organoleptic changes in the product
lactic acid bacteria in milkfacultative anerobe; prefer lactose; produce lactic acid; doesn't effect safety but can change quality
butyric acid bacteria in milkfound in soil and plants;anaerobic spore formers; resistant to HTST; butryic acid gives an off flavor
three ways to control butyric acid bacteriapotassium nitrate,lowering pH, salt
Coli bacteria in milkfaculative anaerobes;related mastitis; produce lactic acid, CO2, hydrogen peroxide; results in bitter unclean taste; generally controlled by HTST
putrefaction bacteria in milkboth anaerobe and anaerobic; contain proteases that break down protein to ammonia; contain lipases; yields poor quality butter and cheese
what happens with low pH in milk?precipitation of curds; thickening increases viscosity; yogurt; buttermilk; cheese ripening
starter culturesstreptococcus lactis-initator, produces proteases, if its casein will start precipitation of curd can start at pH 7.2 ends at about 6.2
what continues after streptococcus lactis cant grow anymorelactobacillus casei continue to grow at pH six and below
oxidative rancidityoxidation of double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids; metallic flavor
hydrolytic rancidityfree fatty acids are split from the glycerol in triglycerides; activated by a lipase heat or agitation; pasteurization in activates lipases
homogenizationavoiding separation of fat content; milk is pressed through screens with tiny apertures 2500 psi; makes fat molecules the same size;
effects of homogenizationprotein layers form around fat globules; increased viscosity; whiter appearance; less stable to heat and light; more sensitive to oxidative rancidity; curds are softer; less distinctive milk flavor



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