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Digestion template



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What is Digestion?It is the breakdown of ingested food into molecules which are small enough to be transported across plasma membranes and the removal of undigested materials and waste
What is the movement of food?The process of food passing through the gastrointestinal tract
What are the 5 main processes of the digestive process?1)Ingestion 2)Movement of Food 3)Digestion 4)Absorption 5)Defecation
what are the two processes of digestion?1)Chemical Digestion- The breakdown of large molecules into smaller ones via catabolic reactions. 2)Mechanical Digestion- Varied movements which serve to breakdown and mix food
What is ingestion?The movement of food into the body
What is absorption?Occurs from the digestive tract into the bloodstream or lymphatics
What is defecation?Elimination of indigestible substances and wastes from the body
What are the parts of the digestive tract?1)Salivary glands 2)Pharynx 3)Esophagus 4)Stomach 5)Small Intestine 6)Large Intestine 7)Rectum
What is the general organization of the GIT?The GIT is a tube which extends from the mouth to the anus and is approx. 25-35 feet in length
What are the major layers of the gastrointestinal tract?1)Mucosa 2)Sub-mucosa 3)Muscularis 4)Serosa
What are some of the accessory structures of the digestive tract?Teeth, Glands, Liver, Tongue, Pancreas, Gallbladder
What are the three layers of the Mucosa?1)Epithelium-Varies from simple to stratified and is non-keratinized in general(Squamous or columnar) 2)Lamina propria(nerves/blood)-Arranged as loose connective tissue 3)Muscularis-Smooth muscle
What is the sub-mucosa?Dense connective tissue that connects the mucosa to the muscularis
What is peritoneum?1)Parietal layer-Lines the abdominal cavity. 2)Visceral layer-Lines the organs within the cavity --Both consist of simple squamous epithelium -The space between them is peritoneal cavity(peritoneal fluid)
What is the muscularies and how is it arranged?Skeletal muscle in the mouth, pharynx, and upper esophagus but smooth muscle in the rest of the GIT. Arranged generally into both circular and longitudinal layers
What are the areas of the oral cavity?1)Cheeks 2)Vermilion 3)Labial Frenulum 4)Vestibule 5)Fauces 6)Hard/soft palate 7)Uvula
What is the serosa?Outermost layer consisting of connective tissue and epithelium
What is vermilion?The transition area between the skin and mucous membranes of the lips
What is vestibule?The area of the oral cavity between the gums/teeth and the lips/cheeks
What is the hard palate?The anterior roof of the oral cavity is the hard palate and posteriorly is the soft palate
What is labial frenulum?The lips are attached to the gums -Superior/Inferior
What is the Uvula?The muscular process hanging from the posterior soft palate is the uvula
What is the fauces?The oral cavity that opens into the pharynx(throat)
What is the general structure of the tongue?1)forms the floor of the oral cavity 2)Very muscular-Intrinsic muscles(Origin/insertion of the tongue) 2)Extrinsic muscles -The tongue is held down by the lingual frenulum which is attached on midline, beneath the tongue. -Various papillae are found on the sides and top of the tongue:Filiform, Fungiform, and circumvallate
What is Filiform Papillae?Present on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue -The are whitish and have no taste buds associated with them
What are the functions of the salivary glands?Lubricate, Digest, and Dissolve food
What is fungiform papillae?Most common near the tip of the tongue -Have taste buds
What 4 types of salivary glands?1)Buccal 2)Parotids 3)Submandibular 4)Sublingual
What is circumvallate papillae?Located on the posterior part of the tongue and also have taste buds
What is the composition of saliva?99.5% is water .5% are enzymes to breakdown starch -1000-1500mL produced per day
What controls saliva secretions?Under neurological control -Food serves to stimulate these secretions -Sights, sounds, smells, and touch of food also will increase salivary secretions -Irritating substances will also increase saliva production
What does the term dentitions mean?Sets of teeth -On each side, upper and lower, there are incisors(2), cuspid or canine(1), premolars (2), and molars (3) which includes the wisdom teeth if present. 1) Primary Dentition-Begins to come in around 6 months of age 2)Secondary Dentition-Usually begins around 6 years of age and is complete around 12 years of age.
What is the anatomy of teeth?1)Gingiva-Gums 2)Crown-Part above the gum-line 3)Root-Imbedded in the socket or alveolus 4)Neck-Constricted area near the gumline(narrows) 5)Peridontal Ligament-Lines the sockets and anchors the tooth to the bone(Dense Connective tissue), glued by cementum 6)Pulp Cavity-Large cavity within the tooth 7)Apical Foramen-At the tip of the root, it leads to and from the pulp cavity and allows the passage of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves. 8)Dentin-This is the major ingredient of teeth, it is calcified connective tissue(not bone) 9)Enamel-Hardest substance in the human body, it covers the crown and neck of the teeth. 10)Cementum-Covers the dentin at the root level and helps anchor the tooth to the periodontal ligament.
How does digestion occur in the mouth?1)Mechanical-Mastication or chewing(Uses the teeth, tongue, and saliva to form the food into a bolus 2)Chemical(Principal enzyme is Amylase)
What is Deglutition and how does it work?Swallowing -The voluntary phase involves the oropharynx -The pharyngeal phase and the esophageal phase are both involuntary and serve to convey food into the stomach.
What structure and function of the esophagus?This is a collapsible, muscular organ located behind the trachea 1)Histology-Mucosa is nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium -The muscularis is smooth muscle -The tunica adventitia consists of connective tissue that blends imperceptibly into the surrounding connective tissue -There is no epithelium



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