These flashcards cover a variety of diseases and other health problems.
There are 49 flash cards in this set (9 pages to print.)
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Sample flash cards in this set:
|Mild to potentially fatal respritory disease caused by diptheria toxin following infection with Corynebacterium diphtehria.spreads through respiratory droplets (such as those produced by a cough or sneeze) •
|The common cold usually causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, headache, or other symptoms. Caused by the cold virus by sneezing and coughing little droplets in the air.
|Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of people each year in the United States. Germs called bacteria, viruses, and fungi may cause pneumonia.••
|Whooping cough. is an upper respiratory infection caused by the Bordetella pertussis or Bordetella parapertussis bacteria.When an infected person sneezes or coughs, tiny droplets containing the bacteria move through the air, and the disease is easily spread from person to person. Initial symptoms, similar to the common cold, usually develop about a week after exposure to the bacteria.
|caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Inhalation anthrax is an uncommon type of anthrax caused by breathing in the anthrax bacteria or spores • Begins with fever, malaise, headache, cough, shortness of breath, and chest pain • Fever and shock may occur later
|caused by the bacterium mycobacterium tuberculosis. you can get tb by breathing in air droplets from a cough or sneeze.
|Infectious disease caused by 2 species of orthomyxovirus.
|a very common virus. Spreads through tiny droplets in the air. same symptoms as a cold
|SARS is caused by a member of the coronavirus family of viruses (the same family that can cause the common cold). When someone with SARS coughs or sneezes, infected droplets spray into the air. You can catch the SARS virus if you breathe in or touch these particles. The SARS virus may live on hands, tissues, and other surfaces for up to 6 hours in these droplets and up to 3 hours after the droplets have dried. symptoms are: • Cough • Difficulty breathing • Fever greater than 100.4 degrees F (38.0 degrees C) • Other breathing symptoms The most common symptoms are: • Chills and shaking • Cough -- usually starts 2-3 days after other symptoms • Fever • Headache • Muscle aches
|tooth decay caused by viraddins streptoccoci and other bacteria.
|common cause of such damage is infection of the stomach by bacteria called Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) • Feeling of fullness -- unable to drink as much fluid • Hunger and an empty feeling in the stomach, often 1 - 3 hours after a meal • Mild nausea (vomiting may relieve this symptom) • Pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen • Upper abdominal pain that wakes you up at night Other possible symptoms include: • Bloody or dark tarry stools • Chest pain • Fatigue • Vomiting, possibly bloody • Weight loss
|Disease contracted through the ingestion of food and water contaminated through vibrio chlorea and charachterized by vomiting and watery diahreaha.
|Salmonella enterocolitis is one of the most common types of food poisoning. It occurs when you swallow food or water that is contaminated with the salmonella bacteria.• Abdominal pain or cramping or tenderness • Chills • Diarrhea • Fever • Muscle pain • Nausea • Vomiting
|The mumps are caused by a virus. The virus is spread from person-to-person by respiratory droplets (for example, when you sneeze) or by direct contact with items that have been contaminated with infected saliva. Symptoms • Face pain • Fever • Headache • Sore throat • Swelling of the parotid glands (the largest salivary glands, located between the ear and the jaw) • Swelling of the temples or jaw (temporomandibular area)
|Many types of viruses can cause gastroenteritis. The most common ones are: • Astrovirus • Enteric adenovirus • Norovirus (also called Norwalk-like virus). It is common among school-age children. • Rotavirus, the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It can also infect adults exposed to children with the virus. Outbreaks may also occur in nursing homes. • Abdominal pain • Diarrhea • Nausea • Vomiting These viruses are often found in contaminated food or drinking water
|The hepatitis A virus is found mostly in the stools and blood of an infected person about 15 - 45 days before symptoms occur and during the first week of illness.• Dark urine • Fatigue • Itching • Loss of appetite • Low-grade fever • Nausea and vomiting • Pale or clay-colored stools • Yellow skin (jaundice
|Giardiasis is an infection of the small intestine caused by a microscopic organism (protozoa)Giardiasis outbreaks can occur in communities in both developed and developing countries where water supplies become contaminated with raw sewage. It can be contracted by drinking water from lakes or streams where water-dwelling animals such as beavers and muskrats, or domestic animals such as sheep, have caused contamination. It is also spread by direct person-to-person contact, which has caused outbreaks in institutions such as day care centers. Symptoms • Abdominal pain • Diarrhea • Gas or bloating • Headache • Loss of appetite • Low-grade fever • Nausea • Swollen or distended abdomen • Vomiting
|infection of the small intestine with the parasite Cryptosporidium that causes diarrhea. The major risk factor is swallowing water contaminated with fecal matter. Those at higher risk include: • Animal handlers • Men who have sex with men • People in close contact with infected individuals • Young children Outbreaks have been linked to: • Drinking from contaminated public water supplies • Drinking unpasteurized cider • Swimming in contaminated pools and lakes
|infection caused by the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica. Caused by parasites. an infection of the intestinal tract. Symptoms are •vomiting: This may be an indication of severe infection in the gastrointestinal tract. •diarrhea: Persons with mild amoebiasis may pass stool at least three to eight times a day. The stool may be soft with specks of mucus and blood. •bloody stools: This is an indication of chronic or more severe amoebiasis. Usually, individuals may pass bloody, liquid stools of at least 10 to 20 times per day. •abdominal pain •sudden weight loss •abdominal cramps •nausea •loss of appetite •fever •fatigue: This can result due to the loss of a lot of liquid in the body. •intestinal gas •rectal pain during movement of bowel Read more at Suite101: Amoebiasis: Signs and Symptoms of the Disease
|Food poisoning occurs when you swallow food or water that has been contaminated with certain types of bacteria, parasites, viruses, or toxins. Most cases of food poisoning are due to common bacteria such as Staphylococcus or Escherichia coli (E. coli). Food poisoning is caused by certain bacteria, viruses, parasites, or toxins. Types of food poisoning include: • Botulism (Clostridium botulinum) • Campylobacter enteritis • Cholera • E. coli enteritis • Fish poisoning • Listeria • Staphylococcus aureus • Salmonella • Shigella • Abdominal cramps • Diarrhea (may be bloody) • Fever and chills • Headache • Nausea and vomiting • Weakness
|Shigellosis is caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella. There are several types of Shigella. • Shigella sonnei, also called "group D" Shigella, is responsible for most cases of shigellosis in the United States. • Shigella flexneri, or "group B" Shigella, cause almost all other cases. • Shigella dysenteriae type 1 is rare in the U.S. but can lead to deadly outbreaks in developing countries. People infected with the bacteria release it into their stool. The bacteria can spread from an infected person to contaminate water or food, or directly to another person. • Acute (sudden) abdominal pain or cramping • Acute (sudden) fever • Blood, mucus, or pus in stool • Crampy rectal pain (tenesmus) • Nausea and vomiting • Watery diarrhea
|Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the liver due to infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Other types of viral hepatitis include: Infection can be spread through: • Blood transfusions (not common in the United States) • Direct contact with blood in health care settings • Sexual contact with an infected person • Tattoo or acupuncture with unclean needles or instruments • Shared needles during drug use • Shared personal items (such as toothbrushes, razors, and nail clippers) with an infected person The hepatitis B virus can be passed to an infant during childbirth if the mother is infected. • You may have no symptoms • You may feel sick for a period of days or weeks • You may become very ill (called fulminant hepatitis)
|Hepatitis C infection is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) • Abdominal pain (right upper abdomen) • Abdominal swelling (due to fluid called ascites) • Clay-colored or pale stools • Dark urine • Fatigue • Fever • Itching • Jaundice • Loss of appetite • Nausea • Vomiting
|Hepatitis delta virus, is a disease caused by a small circular enveloped RNA virus. injecting drug users and persons receiving clotting factor concentrates
|caused by germs, usually bacteria that enter the urethra and then the bladder. This can lead to infection, most commonly in the bladder itself, which can spread to the kidneys.symptoms of a bladder infection include: • Cloudy or bloody urine, which may have a foul or strong odor • Low fever (not everyone will have a fever) • Pain or burning with urination • Pressure or cramping in the lower abdomen (usually middle) or back • Strong need to urinate often, even right after the bladder has been emptied
|Bacterial vaginosis is a mild infection of the vagina caused by bacteria. Normally, there are a lot of "good" bacteria and some "bad" bacteria in the vagina. The good types help control the growth of the bad types. In women with bacterial vaginosis, the balance is upset. There are not enough good bacteria and too many bad bacteria.
|fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species (all yeasts), of which Candida albicans is the most common. severe itching, burning, soreness, irritation, and a whitish or whitish-gray cottage cheese-like discharge, often with a curd-like appearance.
|caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Symptoms in men include: • Burning and pain while urinating • Increased urinary frequency or urgency • Discharge from the penis (white, yellow, or green in color) • Red or swollen opening of penis (urethra) • Tender or swollen testicles • Sore throat (gonococcal pharyngitis) Symptoms in women can be very mild or nonspecific, and may be mistaken for another type of infection. They include: • Vaginal discharge • Burning and pain while urinating • Increased urination • Sore throat • Painful sexual intercourse • Severe pain in lower abdomen (if the infection spreads to the fallopian tubes and stomach area) • Fever (if the infection spreads to the fallopian tubes and stomach area)
|sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidsmall sore, called a chancre (SHANG-kur). The sore appears at the spot where the bacteria entered your body.Within a few weeks of the original chancre healing, you may experience a rash that begins on your trunk but eventually covers your entire body - even the palms of your hands and the soles of your feet. This rash is usually not itchy and may be accompanied by wart-like sores in the mouth or genital area. Within a few weeks of the original chancre healing, you may experience a rash that begins on your trunk but eventually covers your entire body - even the palms of your hands and the soles of your feet. This rash is usually not itchy and may be accompanied by wart-like sores in the mouth or genital area. Some people also experience muscle aches, fever, sore throat and swollen lymph nodesmay damage your brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones and joints. These problems may occur many years after the original, untreated infection.
|Genital herpes affects the skin or mucous membranes of the genitals. It caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV is spread from one person to another during sexual contact. • HSV-2 most often causes genital herpes. HSV-2 can be spread through secretions from the mouth or genitals. • HSV-1 usually affects the mouth and lips and causes cold sores or fever blisters. However, it can spread from the mouth to the genitals during oral sex. For more information on HSV-1, see: Herpes labialis symptoms may include: • Decreased appetite • Fever • General sick feeling (Malaise) • Muscle aches in the lower back, buttocks, thighs, or knees • Swollen and tender lymph nodes in the groin during an outbreak Genital symptoms include the appearance of small, painful blisters filled with clear or straw-colored fluid.
|pain/discomfort in digestion
|reflex ejection of stomach contents outward thru mouth
|act of belching/ raising gas orally from stomach
|vomiting of blood
|extreme, persistent vomiting that causes dehydration
|urge to vomit
|inherited autoimmune disorder; severe reaction to foods containing gluten
|colon cancer; manifests itself in polyps in colon
|mushroom-like growth from surface of mucous membrane
|chronic presence of abnormal # of diverticula of colon
|small pouch/sac found in lining of tubular organ
|inflammation/inf. of one or more diverticulum in colon
|inflammation of small intestine
|large ins testing is partially/completely blood deprived
|partial/complete blockage of small/large intestine
|irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
|common condition of unknown cause w/symptoms that can include intermittent cramping/bloating/constipation
|inflammatory bowl disease (IBD)
|disease that cause inflammation/swelling in intestines
|chronic condition of unknown cause; repeated epi. of inflammation in rectum/l.i. caused by ulcers
|Crohn's Disease (CD)
|chronic autoimmune disorder that can occur anywhere in digestive tract