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Ecology template



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Ecologythe scientific study of the interactions between different kinds of living things and their environment
biotic factorsplants, animals, bacteria
ecologista scientist who studies ecology
abiotic factorsclimate, light, soil, water
biosphereincludes all organisms and the environments in which they live (biotic and abiotic factors)
organisman individual living thing
populationincludes all the organisms in the same species in a given area.
communitya collection of populations that interact with each other in a given area
ecosystemincludes all biotic and abiotic factors in a given area
biomea group of ecosystems in the same region having similar types of vegetation governed by similar climatic conditions.
population densitythe number of organisms living in a given area.
growth ratethe change in population size
exponential growthwhen ideal conditions allow organisms to reproduce at a rate greater then their death rate
logistic growthAvailable resources become more limited as a population increases, causing the population to slow and stabilize
carrying capacitythe point at which the population becomes stable
density-dependent limiting factorscompetition, predation, parasitism, crowding/stress
Density-Independent Limiting FactorsWeather, Fire, Drought/Flood, Human Activities
nichethe role that a species plays in its community
habitatthe place where the organism lives
successionthe natural change that takes place within a community of an ecosystem
Primary Successionthe gradual development of a new community where no organisms have lived before.
Primary Successionno soil present
Primary Successionmosses and lichens are the pioneer species
Climax CommunityA stable community
Secondary SuccessionOccurs when a natural disaster or human activity partially destroys a community.
Secondary SuccessionSoil is already present.
Secondary SuccessionSpecies replacing the pioneer species are different.
Secondary SuccessionTakes less time to become a climax community.
Renewable ResourceA natural resource that is replaced or replenished by natural processes.
Renewable ResourceSoil, plants, water, crops, animals, gas, oil
Nonrenewable ResourceThose that are available in limited amounts
Nonrenewable ResourceMetals, Minerals, Topsoil, Fossil fuels
Pollutionthe contamination of soil, water, or air as a result of human activity
Air Pollutioncaused primarily by the burning of fossil fuels to produce electricity, or driving cars, and heating homes.
SmogA combination of smoke, gases, and fog. Contains Sulfur oxides.
Acid RainSmog reacts with water vapor in the atmosphere to produce sulfuric acid
Greenhouse EffectBurning of fossil fuels release excess carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The excess gas traps radiant energy from the sun. The atmosphere prevents the heat from escaping.
Ozone LayerThe layer which protects of from lethal doses of ultraviolet radiation
Greenhouse EffectAllows the Earth to remain warm enough for living things to survive.
Ozone LayerThis layer is thinning because of CFC's (chlorofluorocarbons)
Water PollutionCaused by contaminants from sewers, industries, farms, and homes entering water sources.
Causes of Water PollutionSewage, Fertilizer, dirty wash water
Greenhouse EffectCauses glacial melting which could result in flooding of coastal regions
Three RsReduce, Reuse, Recycle
Tropisma plant's response to its environment
Geotropisma plant's response to gravity
Phototropisma plant's response to light
Thigmotropisma plant's response to touch
Hormonesa chemical messenger used by plants to control their growth in response to environmental stimuli
AuxinHormone responsible for regulation phototropism, by stimulating the elongation of cells.
AuxinEx: Causes stems to bend; promotes fruit growth and dropping of fruit; causes leaf loss in the fall
GibberellinsGrowth hormone that causes plants to grow taller
Abscisic Acidinhibits plant growth & cell division during times of stress
Behavioranything an animal does in response to stimuli in its environment
Innate Behaviorinherited behavior of animals
Reflexautomatic response that requires no thinking at all
Instinctcomplex pattern of innate behaviors
Instinctbehaviors which may take longer and may be a combination of behaviors
Instinctcourtship
Reflexhappens within seconds
Territorya physical space that contains the breeding ground, feeding areas, shelter, or potential mates of an animal
Migrationthe instinctive, seasonal movement of a species
Hibernatea condition in which the animal's body temperature drops, oxygen consumption decreases, and breathing rates decrease to just a few breaths per minute.
Estivationa condition in which animals reduce the rate of their metabolisms due to extreme heat, lack of food, or long periods of drought
Learned Behaviora result of previous experiences of an animal that modifies their current behavior
Habituationwhen an animal is repeatedly given a stimulus that is not harmful and does not have a negative impact on the animal
Imprintinga form of learned behavior; A process whereby a young animal follow the characteristics of his/her mother after hatching



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