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Endocrine System template



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A condition caused by the overproduction of growth hormone in adults, characterized by a thickening of bones and an enlargement of cartilages and other soft tissuesAcromegaly
The portion of the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of the pituitary gland) that is immediately adjacent to the neurohypophysis (posterior lobe) and the infundibulum.Pars Intermedia
A circulating transport globulin that binds thyroid hormones.Thyroglobulin
The pharyngeal tonsilAdenoids
The enzyme released by cells of the juxtaglomerular complex when renal blood flow declines; converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.Renin
Cells of the pancreatic islets that secrete insulin in response to elevated bloodsugar concentrations.Beta cells
An important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Dopamine
Reproductive organs that produce gametes and hormones.Gonads
The overactivity of glands that produce exocrine or endocrine secretions.Hypersecretion
The floor of the diencephalon; the region of the brain containing centers involved with the subconscious regulation of visceral functions, emotions, drives, and the coordination of neural and endocrine functionsHypothalamus
Neural tissue in the posterior portion of the roof of the diencephalon; secretes melatonin.Pineal gland
Hormones secreted by the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal (adrenal) cortex to modify glucose metabolism; cortisol and coticosterone are important examples.Glucocorticoids
The posterior pituitary, or pars nervosa; stores and releases OXT and ADHNeurohypophysis
A hypothalamic regulatory hormone that inhibits growth hormone secretion by the adenohypophysis; also called somatostatin.Growth hormone - inhibiting hormone (GH-IH)
The core of the suprarenal (adrenal) gland, a modified sympathetic ganglion that secretes catecholamines into the blood during sympathetic activation; also called adrenal medulla.Suprarenal medulla
A class of steroid sex hormones that includes estradiolEstrogens
Supporting cells of the seminiferous tubules of the testis; respponsible for the differentiation of spermatids, the maintenance of the blood-testis barrier, and the secretion of inhibin, androgen-binding protein, and Mullerian-inhibiting factor; also called nurse cells.Sustentacular cells
Abnormally low rates of exocrine or endocrine secretionHyposecretion
Body weight 10-20 percent above standard values as a result of body fat accumulation.Obesity
A passageway that carries spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct; also called the vas deferens.Ductus deferens
A steroid hormone produced by the suprarenal (adrenal) cortex.Corticosteroid
Corticosteroids produced by the zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal (adrenal) cortex; steroids such as aldosterone that affect mineral metabolism.Mineralocorticoid.
Aggregations of endocrine cells in the pancreas; also called islets of Langerhans.Pancreatic islets
The blood protein produced by the liver that is converted to angiotensin I by the enzyme renin.Angiotensinogen
A compound containing a relatively small carbohydrate group attached to a large protein.Glycoprotein
The large, anterior portion of the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of the pituitary gland).Pars distalis
Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, hormones that stimulate gamete development and sex hormone secretion.Gonadotropins.
A hormone synthesized in the hypothalamus and secreted at the neurohypophysis (posterior lobe of the pituitary gland); causes water retention at the kidneys and an elevation of blood pressure.Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Organic compounds whose chemical structure can be summarized as R-CHNH2-COOH.Amino acids
Loose connective tissue dominated by adipocytes.Adipose tissue
A catecholamine neurotransmitter in the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system, released at most sympathetic neuromuscular and neuroglandular junctions, and a hormone secreted by the suprarenal (adrenal) medulla; also called noradrenaline.Norepinephrine
The hormone produced by the activation of angiotensinogen by renin; angiotensin-converting enxyme converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II in the lung capillaries.Angiotensin I
The region of the suprarenal (adrenal) cortex that secretes mineralocrticoids.Zona glomerulosa
T3, a thyroid hormoneTriiodothyronine.
A hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands when plasma calcium levels fall below the normal range; causes increased osteoclast activity, increased intestinal calcium uptake, and decreased calcium ion loss at the kidneys.Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
The neurohypophysis (posterior lobe of the pituitary gland).Pars nervosa
A ball or knot; in the kidneys, a knot of capillaries that projects into the enlarged, proximal end of a nephron; the site of filtration, the first step in the production of urine.Glomerulus
The hormone that stimulates functional development of the mammary glands in females; a secretion of the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of the pituitary gland).Prolactin
An enzyme bound to the inner surfaces of plasma membranes that can convert ATP to cyclic-AMP; also called adenylyl cyclase.Adenylate cyclase
A condition caused by the oversecretion of suprarenal (adrenal) steroids.Cushing disease.
A compound that is secreted by one cell and travels through the circulatory system to affect the activities of cells in another portion of the body.Hormone
An inorganic compound consisting of a cation other than H1 and an anion other than OH2.Salt
A reduction in the diameter of arterioles due to the contraction of smooth muscles in the tunica media; elevates peripheral resistance; may occur in response to local factors, through the action of hormones, or from the stimulation of the vasomotor center.Vasoconstriction
Four small glands embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland; secrete parathyroid hormone.Parathyroid glands
Thyrosine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), hormones of the thyroid gland; stimulate tissue metabolism, energy utilization, and growth.Thyroid hormones
The core of the suprarenal (adrenal) gland; a modified sympathetic ganglion that secretes catecholamines into the blood during sympathetic activation; also called suprarenal medulla.Adrenal medulla
The principal androgen produced by the intersitial cells of the testes.Testosterone
The portion of the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of the pituitary gland) that wraps around the infundibulum superior to the neurohypophysis (posterior lobe).Pars tuberalis
The most important progestin secreted by the corpus luteum after ovulation.Progesterone.
The hormone, produced by the adenohypophysis (anter-ior lobe of the pituitary gland), that triggers the secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
A corticosteroid secreted by the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal (adrenal) cortex; a glucocorticoid.Corticosterone
A hormone that causes an elevation in systemic blood pressure, stimulates the secretion of aldosterone, promotes thirst, and causes the release of antidiuretic hormone; angiotensin-converting enzyme in lung capillaries converts angiotensisn I into angiotensin II.Angiotensin II
The network of vessels that carries blood from capillaries in the hypothalamus to capillaries in the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of the pituitary gland).Hypophyseal portal system
The superficial portion of the suprarenal (adreanal) gland that produces steroid hormones; also called the adrenal cortex.Suprarenal cortex
Polyuria due to inadequate production of antidiuretic hormone.Diabetes insipidus
A cell membrane; plasmalemma.Plasma membrane
The hormone secreted by C cells of the thyroid when calcium ion concentrations are abnormally high; restores homeostasis by increasing the rate of bone deposition and the rate of calcium loss at the kidneys.Calcitonin
A small endocrine gland that secretes steroids and catecholamines and is located superior to each kidney; also called adrenal gland.Suprarenal gland
See pancreatic islets.Islets of Langerhans
A narrow band of tissue connecting two larger masses.isthmus
A receptor sensitive to changes in the osmolarity of plasma.Osmoreceptor
One of the essential fatty acids.Arachidonic acid
A hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets; elevates blood glucose concentrations.Glucagon
Compounds stimulating tissue growth; released by the liver after the secretion of growth hormone; also called insulin-like growth factors.Somatomedins
A hormone released by tissues, especially the kidneys, exposed to low oxygen concentrations; stimulates erythropoiesis (red blood cell formation) in bone marrow.Erythropoietin
A corticosteroid secreted by the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal (adrenal cortex; a glucocorticoid.Cortisol
A hormone produced by hypothalamic cells and secreted into capillaries at the neurohypophysis (posterior lobe of the pituitary gland); stimulates smooth muscle contractions of the uterus or mammary glands in females and the prostate gland in males.Oxytocin
A hormone secreted by the pineal gland; inhibits secretion of MSH and GnRH.Melatonin
Any steroid produced by the suprarenal (adrenal) cortex.Adrenocortical hormone
An endocrine organ that is situated in the sella turcica of the sphenoid and is connected to the hypothalamus by the indundibulum; includes the neurohypophysis (posterior lobe) and the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe); also called the hypophysis.Pituitary gland
A hormone secreted by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; causes a reduction in plasma glucose concentrations.Insulin
See prostaglandinLocal hormone
The hormone that stimulates the production and secretion of glucocorticoids by the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal (adrenal) cortex; released by the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of the pituitary gland) in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone.Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
The presence of glucose in urine.Glycosuria
An endocrine gland whose lobes are lateral to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx.Thyroid gland
A tapering, funnel-shaped structure; in the brain, the connection between the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus; in the uterine tube, the entrance bounded by fimbriae that receives the oocyes at ovulation.Infundibulum
A gland that secretes hormones into the blood.Endocrine gland
An enzyme that breaks down polysaccharides; produced by the salivary glands and pancreas.Amylase
Also called lutropin; a hormone produced by the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of the pituitary gland). In females, it assists FSH in follicle stimulation, triggers ovulation, and promotes the maintenance and secretion of endometrial glands. In males, it was formerly called intersitial cell-stimulating hormone because it stimulates testosterone secretion by the intersitial cells of the testes.Luteinizing hormone
A fatty acid secreted by one cell that alters the metabolic activities or sensitivities of adjacent cells; also called local hormone.Prostaglandin
Hormones released by specialized cardiocytes when they are stretched by an abnormally large venous return; promotes fluid loss and reductions in blood pressure and in venous return. Includes atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP).Natriuretic peptides (NP)
The stimulation of energy production and heat loss by thyroid hormones.Calorigenic effect
A lymphoid organ, the site of T cell formation.Thymus
Steroid hormones structurally related to cholesterol; progesterone is an example.Progestins
A hormone, produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of the pituitary gland), that stimulates melanin production.Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
A thyroid hormone; also called T4 or tetraiodothyronine.Thyroxine
A circulating transport globulin that binds thyroid hormones.Thyroglobulin
cells that produce exocrine or endocrine secretions.Gland
See norepinephrine.Noradrenaline
The region of the suprarenal (adrenal) cortex that secretes androgens.Zona reticularis
A compnent of the urinary system; an organ functioning in the regulation of plasma composition, including the excretion of wastes and the maintenance of normal fluid and electrolyte balances.Kidney
A homrmone secreted by the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary); stimulates oogenesis (female) and spermatogenesis (male).Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
The superficial portion of the suprarenal (adrenal) gland that produces steroid hormones; also called the suprarenal cortex.Adrenal cortex
A small endocrine gland that secretes steroids and catecholamines and is located superior to each kidney; also called suprarenal gland.Adrenal gland
The exocrine secretion of the liver; stored in the gallbladder and ejected into the duodenum.Bile
The anaerobic cytoplasmic breakdown of glucose into lactic acid by way of pyruvic acid, with a net gain of two ATP molecules.Glycolysis
The synthesis of glucose from protein of lipid precursors.Gluconeogenesis
The endocrine (ductless) glands/organs of the body.Endocrine system
See natriuretic peptidesBrain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
Epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and related compounds.Catecholamine
The releasing hormone, secreted by the hypothalamus, that stimulates secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone by the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of the pituitary).Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
The pituitary glandHypophysis
A digestive organ containing exocrine and endocrine tissues; the exocrine portion secretes pancreatic juice, and the endocrine portion secretes hormones, including insulin and glucagon.Pancreas
A steroid sex hormone primarily produced by the interstitial cells of the testis and manufactured in small quantities by the suprarenal (adrenal) cortex in either gender.Androgen
Connections between cells that permit electrical coupling.Gap junctions
The region of the suprarenal (adrenal) cortex that secretes glucocorticoids.Zona fasciculata
The addition of a high-energy phosphate group to a molecule.Phosphorylation
The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment.Homeostasis
Polyuria and glycosuris, most commonly due to the inadequate production or diminished sensitivity to insulin with a resulting elevation of blood glucose levels.Diabetes mellitus
An adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) hormone that stimulates tissue growth and anabolism when nutrients and abundant and restricts tissue glucose dependence when nutrients are in short supply.Growth hormone (GH)
Growth hormone; produced by the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) in response to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH).Somatotropin
An unconscious, continuous movement of the eyes as if to adjust to constant motion.Nystagmus
Movement toward the axis or midline of the body, as viewed in the anatomical position.Adduction
Thymic hormones essential to the development and differentiation of T cells.Thymosins
A mineralocorticoid produced by the zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal (adrenal) cortex; stimulates sodium and water conservation at the kidneys; secreted in response to the presence of angiotensin II.Aldosterone



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