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Evolutionary Theorythe process by which species originate overtime
Evolutionary Psychologyfield that studies evolved psychological mechanisms such as behaviors, thoughts, and feelings being shaped by evolutionary dispositions
What makes evolutionary psychology difficult to study?there are no fossil records for behavior, only inferences from things found in the past
Evolved Psychological Mechanisms1. is influenced by genetics 2. is adaptive and yields a reproductive advantage 3. is apparent in most members of the species 4.is apparent in most closely-related species
Perspectives of Study1. Proximate causation: tells us the how 2. Ultimate causation: tells us the why (evolutionary psych always is passing on genes)
What is the proximate and ultimate causation's of falling in love?Proximate: for social psych it is passion, for biopsych it is hormones, dopamine, and breakup is similar to withdrawel (physical pain) 2. Ultimate is babies are needy so bi parental care is needed and love creates that para-bond
Four Processes of Evolution1. Selection: certain members of a species pass on more genes than other members of the species, changing gene frequency 2. Gene flow (migration): exchange in genes from one population to another, an example being warfare and migrations (black irish) 3. Genetic Drift: random sampling from another/larger gene pool 4. Mutation: random change in genetic code which is the only process involving new genetic information
Misconceptions of Evolution1. evolution is a conscious, deliberate process 2. evolution creates advanced or better organisms 3. human behavior is genetically determined 4. if behavior is driven by evolution, then we cannot change it 5. survival of the fittest describes the best survive and outlive others
Fitness (selection)if you have passed on your genes, you are fit
Direct fitness (selection)You reproduce
Indirect fitness (selection)Your family reproduces
Methods of Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses1. comparing against species (for humans, primarily primates) 2. comparing individuals within a species 3. sex differences such as male v. female strategies 4. consider same individuals in respect to context (environmental influence) 5.experimental methods which include using manipulations to see reactions
Sources of Data for Evolutionary Data1. archaeological records like fossils and bones 2. data from hunter gatherer societies because it is the closest to how we lived in the past 3. naturalistic observations of how people react (beer goggle) 4. life history data and public records such as marriage and divorce rates, births/deaths, crime rates, and place of residency 5. human products such as fast food restaurants and pornography
What happens when with divorce rates every 4 years?they go up because not as much bi parental care is needed after 4 years old
Why do we want to live by the water?we used to be aquatic in our ancestral past
What is the Biogenetic Law?A theory proposed in 1866 by German zoologist Ernst Haeckel stating our prenatal period mimics our ancestral past (we all start the same). "ontonogy recapulates phylogeny"
Examples of the Biogenetic Law1. Primitive gill slits during embryological development 2. Embryos covered with hair just like chimps 3. Polymastia 4. Gamete Reproduction is so large because we used to go through external fertilization when we were aquatic 5. Behavioral traits such as crawling (quadrapedel) and swimming (bouyant) 6. Grasping reflex and Babinski reflex (spread toes, trigger is hair) 7. Vestigial traits such as nictating membrane and body hair 8. Arm swing with opposing foot in motion with walking 9. Some facial muscles remain active such as raising eyebrows and grinning 10. Existence of toe and finger prints because of friction needed for tree and hair gripping
Brain Intelligence and Evolution1. Cephalization: emergence of a distinguishable head 2. Encephalization: emergence of brain in head 3. Corticalization: cortex takes over main part of brain
What makes the head different?Most of the senses are located in the head because they are localized by the brain
What parts of the brain developed with encephalization?1. Language communication development 2. Hind brain with primitive functions 3. Medulla: vital functions, part of HB 4. Cerebellum: muscle movement (part of HB) 5. Midbrain controls emotions 6. Forebrain contains the cortex which facilitates higher cognition
What is one factor towards humans having intelligence?Humans and dolphins both have the cortex as the largest structure in comparison to the brain mass ratio
Asexual ReproductionThe offspring are identical copies of the parents with the exception of whatever mutations occur
Advantages of asexual reproduction-100% of genes are passed on -No problem of searching for a mate
Disadvantages of asexual reproduction-No varience
Sexual Reproductionoffspring are byproduct of genes from two parents
Advantages of sexual reproduction-Genetic diversity which acts as a defense against parasite/predator problems and accounts for different survival requirements and inhabit broader range of niches (living by equator = slender for smaller surface area and darker for protection)
Disadvantages of sexual reproduction-only 50% of genes passed on -mating effort needed
Sexual selectionthe process with mate choice and competition as opposed to natural selection
Four Types of sexual selection1. male mate choice 2. female mate choice 3. male-male competition 4. female-female competition
Three Fundamental Biological Differences between the Sexes1. Genetic assurance: is the baby yours? 2. Parental investment: females minimal investment is far more than males 3. Reproductive potential: # gametes, reproduction lifespan, # possible offspring
Types of Selection1. R-selection: species have potential to produce a lot of offspring 2. k-selection: few offspring and very needy Both types of selection yield the same amount of offspring statistically
Which type of selection pertain to which gender?Males are precocial which is r-selection. Females are quality which is k-selection



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