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Geology template



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QuestionsAnswers
Lithosphere"Sphere of stone" a region of the earth's crust and upper mantle.
PlatesSeveral "floats" like rafts on the plastic rock of the upper mantle.
Pangaea(Hypothesis) all the continents were connected together into one huge land mass
FaultFracture zone - at the boundary between stationary rock and moving rock.
3 major kinds of faults1. Normal Fault - occurs when rocks along one side of fault sink vertically. 2. Strike-slip fault - when rocks along one side move horizontally. 3. Thrust Fault - when rocks on one side of a fault are shoved on top the other side.
FoldBending or buckling of rocks under great force
SynclineTroughlike structure caused from rocks that bend downward during the folding process
AnticlineArchlike structure formed from rocks that buckle upward during folding
Volcanic MountainMolten rock erupts from a hole in the earth's crust
Folded MountainFormed when edges of two adjacent rock layers were pushed together
Domed MountainWhen molten rock is forced beneath an overlying rock layer
Fault-block MountainFormed along a fault; the rocks on one side are forced upward while the other side sink
Tectonic EarthquakesEarthquakes that result from sudden movements of rock beneath the earth's surface
TremorWeak earthquake
TsunamisGiant sea waves
AftershocksSmaller earthquakes or tremors that follow a major earthquake
seismologyStudy of earthquakes
FocusThe point at which an earthquake begins
EpicenterThe point on the earth's surface directly above the focus
SeismographAn instrument that records the vibrations caused by an earthquake
SeismogramRecord produced by seismograph
Circum-Pacific BeltMost active zone for earthquakes
Richter Magnitude ScaleScale used to measure earthquake strength
VolcanoAn opening in the earths structure through which hoy gases, ash, and molten rock are ejected from earths interior
VolcanologyThe study of volcanoes
DormantAsleep, inactive
Ring of fireNarrow zone of active volcanoes that parallels the circumference. Pacific Belt: more than half the Earth's active volcanoes here
CalderaHuge bowl-shaped craters
DikeVerticle, sheetlike mass of igneous rock
SillHorizontal, sheetlike mass of igneous rock



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