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Learning and Conditioning template



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QuestionsAnswers
law of effecta law stating that if a response made in the presence of a particular stimulus is followed by satisfaction, that response is more likely the next time the stimulus is encountered.
operant conditioninga process through which an organism learns to respond to the environment in a way that produces positive consequences and avoids negative ones
operanta response that has some effect on the world
reinforcera stimulus event that increases the probability that the response that immediately preceded it will occur again
positive reinforcersstimuli that strengthen a response if they follow that response
negative reinforcersthe removal of unpleasant stimuli, such as pain
escape conditioninga type of learning in which an organism learns to make a particular response in order to terminate an aversive stimulus
avoidance conditioninga type of learning in which an organism responds to a signal in a way that prevents exposure to an aversive stimulus
discriminative stimulistimuli that signal whether reinforcement is available if a certain response is made
shapingthe process of reinforcing responses that come successively closer to the desired response
primary reinforcersreinforcers that meet an organism's basic needs, such as food and water
secondary reinforcera reward that people or animals learn to like
fixed ratio schedulea partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement following a fixed number of responses
variable-ratio schedulea partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement after a varying number of responses
fixed-interval schedulea partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement for the first response that occurs after some fixed time ha passed since the last reward
variable-interval schedulea partial reinforcement schedule that provides reinforcement for the first response after varying periods of time.
learned helplessnesslearning that responses do not affect consequences, resulting in failure to try to exert control over the environment
observational learninglearning to perform new behaviors by watching others
shapingthe process of reinforcing responses that come successively closer to the desired response
continuous reinforcement schedulea pattern in which a reinforcer is delivered every time a particular response occurs
partial reinforcement schedulea pattern in which a reinforcer is administered only some of the time after a particular response occurs
latent learninglearning that is not demonstrated at the time it occurs
cognitive mapa mental representation of the environment



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