Learn the terms and rhetoric for discussing logical statements with these definition flash cards.
There are 41 flash cards in this set (7 pages to print.)
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Sample flash cards in this set:
|Logic is the science and art of reasoning well.
|The Law of Excluded Middle
|Any statement is either true or false.
|The Law of Identity
|If a statement is true, then it is true.
|The Law of Non-contradiction
|A statement cannot be both true and false.
|Formal logic deals with...
|the proper modes of reasoning.
|Informal logic deals with...
|Operations of thinking that are indirectly related to reasoning.
|Reasoning with probability from examples or experience to general rules.
|Reasoning with certainty from premises to conclusions.
|A concept that can be expressed precisely.
|A statement that gives the meaning of the term.
|have more than one definition.
|A vague word...
|is a word whose extent is unclear.
|What are the six purposes of definitions?
|1. Definitions show relationships. 2. Definitions remove ambiguity. 3. Definitions reduce vagueness. 4. Definitions increase vocabulary. 5. Definitions can explain concepts theoretically. 6. Definitions can influence attitudes.
|What are the five types of definitions?
|1. Lexical definition 2. Precising definition 3. Stipulative definition 4. Theoretical definition 5. Persuasive definition
|Genus of a term
|A term that is more general, broad, or abstract than the original term and includes it.
|Species of a term
|A term that is more specific, narrow, or concrete than the original term and is included by it.
|Extension of a term
|The sum of all the individual objects described by it.
|Intension of a term
|The sum of all the common attributes denoted by the term.
|What are the three methods of defining?
|1. Defining by synonym 2. Defining by example 3. Defining by genus and difference
|What are the six rules for defining by genus and difference?
|1. A definition should state the essential attributes of the term. 2. A definition should not be circular. 3. A definition should not be too broad or too narrow. 4. A definition should not be unclear or figurative. 5. A definition should be stated positively, if possible. 6. A definition should be of the same part of speech as the term.
|A sentence which is either true or false.
|Sentences that have no truth value; non-statements
|Questions, commands, or nonsense sentences.
|What are three types of self-supporting statements?
|1. Self-reports 2. Statements which are true or false by logical structure 3. Statements which are true or false by definition
|A statement whose truth value can be determined from the statement itself.
|A statement which is always true because of its logical structure.
|A statement that is false due to its logical structure.
|A statement whose truth value depends on evidence or information from the outside itself.
|What are three ways to determine whether a supported statement is true or false?
|1. Authority 2. Experience 3. Deduction
|When two statements can be true at the same time.
|When there is a conflict between two statements.
|When the truth of one statement requires the truth of the other.
|When two statements imply one another.
|When the truth or falsity of one statement has nothing at all to do with the truth or falsity of another statement.
|An actual inconsistency between two statements: they cannot both be true at the same time.
|A difference of opinion or perception.
|A misunderstanding due to differing definitions for one or more words.
|How to change statements into standard form:
|1. Identify and write down the entire subject. 2. Choose the proper "to be" verb (is, are, was, will be...) 3. Rewrite the entire predicate as predicate nominative.
|Subject of a statement
|The term being described.
|Predicate of a statement
|The term that describes or asserts something about the subject.
|Quantity of a statement
|The scope of its claim about the extension of the subject: universal (entire extension) and particular (partial).
|Quality of a statement
|The positive or negative nature of its claim about the subject: affirmative (asserts something) and negative (denies something).