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Logic Terms template

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LogicLogic is the science and art of reasoning well.
The Law of Excluded MiddleAny statement is either true or false.
The Law of IdentityIf a statement is true, then it is true.
The Law of Non-contradictionA statement cannot be both true and false.
Formal logic deals with...the proper modes of reasoning.
Informal logic deals with...Operations of thinking that are indirectly related to reasoning.
InductionReasoning with probability from examples or experience to general rules.
DeductionReasoning with certainty from premises to conclusions.
TermA concept that can be expressed precisely.
DefinitionA statement that gives the meaning of the term.
Ambiguous words...have more than one definition.
A vague a word whose extent is unclear.
What are the six purposes of definitions?1. Definitions show relationships. 2. Definitions remove ambiguity. 3. Definitions reduce vagueness. 4. Definitions increase vocabulary. 5. Definitions can explain concepts theoretically. 6. Definitions can influence attitudes.
What are the five types of definitions?1. Lexical definition 2. Precising definition 3. Stipulative definition 4. Theoretical definition 5. Persuasive definition
Genus of a termA term that is more general, broad, or abstract than the original term and includes it.
Species of a termA term that is more specific, narrow, or concrete than the original term and is included by it.
Extension of a termThe sum of all the individual objects described by it.
Intension of a termThe sum of all the common attributes denoted by the term.
What are the three methods of defining?1. Defining by synonym 2. Defining by example 3. Defining by genus and difference
What are the six rules for defining by genus and difference?1. A definition should state the essential attributes of the term. 2. A definition should not be circular. 3. A definition should not be too broad or too narrow. 4. A definition should not be unclear or figurative. 5. A definition should be stated positively, if possible. 6. A definition should be of the same part of speech as the term.
StatementA sentence which is either true or false.
Sentences that have no truth value; non-statementsQuestions, commands, or nonsense sentences.
What are three types of self-supporting statements?1. Self-reports 2. Statements which are true or false by logical structure 3. Statements which are true or false by definition
Self-supporting statementA statement whose truth value can be determined from the statement itself.
TautologyA statement which is always true because of its logical structure.
Self-contradictionA statement that is false due to its logical structure.
Supported statementA statement whose truth value depends on evidence or information from the outside itself.
What are three ways to determine whether a supported statement is true or false?1. Authority 2. Experience 3. Deduction
ConsistencyWhen two statements can be true at the same time.
InconsistencyWhen there is a conflict between two statements.
ImplicationWhen the truth of one statement requires the truth of the other.
Logical equivalenceWhen two statements imply one another.
IndependenceWhen the truth or falsity of one statement has nothing at all to do with the truth or falsity of another statement.
Real disagreementAn actual inconsistency between two statements: they cannot both be true at the same time.
Apparent disagreementA difference of opinion or perception.
Verbal disagreementA misunderstanding due to differing definitions for one or more words.
How to change statements into standard form:1. Identify and write down the entire subject. 2. Choose the proper "to be" verb (is, are, was, will be...) 3. Rewrite the entire predicate as predicate nominative.
Subject of a statementThe term being described.
Predicate of a statementThe term that describes or asserts something about the subject.
Quantity of a statementThe scope of its claim about the extension of the subject: universal (entire extension) and particular (partial).
Quality of a statementThe positive or negative nature of its claim about the subject: affirmative (asserts something) and negative (denies something).

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