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Mating Habits template



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Monogamya mating system in which a male and female mate with each other, and only each other, during a given breeding season. Rare in mammals, frequent in birds.
Mate-Assistance HypothesisMales will remain with a single partner to help rear their offspring in environments in which male parental care can greatly promote infant survival.
Mate-Guarding HypothesisMonogamy is adaptive for a male when a female acquires another partner after one male leaves.
Simultaneous PolygamyAn individual maintains numerous mating partners in the same general time frame.
Sequential PolygamyIndividuals forming many short-term pair bonds in sequence during a given breeding season.
Female Defense PolygynyMales aggressively guard females who are found in spatial clusters, obtaining sole reproductive access.
LekAn area used, usually consistently, for communal courtnship displays. Benefits- females choose mates, good for a few males.
PolyandryA mating system wherein females mate with more than one male per breeding season.
Promiscuous Mating SystemsA type of mating system in which both polyandry and polygyny are occurring.
PromiscuityBoth males and females mate with as many partners and no pair bonds are formed.
PolygynandryPromiscuity with bonding wherein several males form bonds with several females simultaneously.
Mating Systems and Female Dispersion PatternsFemale fecundity- closely tied to availability of resources. Male fecundity- closely tied to access to females.
Female Distribution TheoryA general explanation for the diversity in mating systems. Females of diff. species are spatially distributed in diff. ways
Resource Defense PolygynyMales control acccess to females indirectly by monopolizing critical resources.
Polygyny ThresholdThe point at which a female will benefit more by joining an already mated male possessing a good territory rather than an unmated male on a poor territory. Ex. Lark Bunting
Extra-pair CopulationsMating by a male or female with an individual other than their primary partner in seemingly monogamous species.
Fertility Insurance HypothesisReduces the risk that some eggs will remain unfertilized due to mating with a partially or completely infertile male.
Genetic Diversity HypothesisMating with more males provides more genetic diversity in the offspring and more chance they can adapt to changing environments.
Good Genes HypothesisSocial partner is of lower genetic quality than other potential sperm donors.
Material Benefits HypothesisMore mates mean more resources or parental care received from the sexual partners of a females.
Sperm CompetitionA situation in which one male's sperm fertilizes a disproportionate number of eggs when a female copulates with more than one male.
Cryptic Female ChoiceThe ability of a female in receipt of sperm from more than one male to choose which sperm to use to fertilize her eggs.



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