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Mineral Types template



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MineralsSubstances that are found naturally in the earth and have a crystalline structure
MineralogyThe branch of geology that deals with the identification and classification of minerals
Native ElementSubstances that exist naturally in the earth's crust as a single, uncombined element
HalidesCompounds made with the elements fluoride, chlorine, bromine iodine, or astatine
CrystalsGeometric structures that are composed of atoms or molecules and have an orderly arrangement
SilicatesLargest group of elements: make up over 90% of the earth's crust.
DiamondThe hardest naturally-occurring substance known
LusterThe way light is reflected from the surface of a mineral
CleavageProducing fragments with the same shape as the parent mineral
MinedExtracted from the earth
MetallurgyExtraction of metals from the earth and preparing to use them
Direct Iron ReductionUses methane gas instead of coke to refine iron
Diamond PipesNarrow, verticle underground deposits that resemble the vents of extinct volcano
Semiprecious StonesGems that are not as rare, durable, or esteemed as precious stones
Simulant GemstonesImitation stones
Synthetic GemstonesIdentical to their natural counterparts in appearance and chemical content
PetrologyThe branch of geology that is concerned with the origin, composition, and structure of rock
RockThe hardest material that makes up the earth's crust
Igneous RockFormed from solidified magma
Sedimentary RockFormed from sediments cemented together by water, pressure, and chemical action
concretionHard, round structures that form when minerals settle out of water and crystallize around a sand grain or other mineral fragment
StratumHorizontal rock layer that has a different type of rock layer above it
Mechanical SedimentsSand, clay, or rock fragments that are transported by physical means and deposited in a thick layer elsewhere
EvaporitesChemical sediments that result from the evaporation of water
Salt DomesHuge, cylindrical structures deep underground
Fossil FuelFuel derived from once-living things
Bituminous CoalSoft coal: the most common form of coal
Physical WeatheringThe breakdown of large rocks into fragments by physical force, such as ice, rapid temperature change, wind or water
Ice wedgingWhen rain water or melted ice soaks into tiny cracks in a rock and freezes; the sudden expansion of the ice as it freezes can split the rock
Exfoliationbreaking down or peeling away of rock in layers
Chemical Weatheringwhen minerals in rock react chemically with air or water, the mineral may weaken or dissolve away
ErosionPhysical processes like wind or running water carry away rock fragments
Drainage Basinthe region of land drained by a river system
Floodplainlevel land that borders a river and is covered by river water in flood time
Leveesridge constructed to confine a river to its channel and prevent extensive flooding
Deltafan shaped or triangular deposit extending from the mouth of the river into the sea



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