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Muscles template



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muscle fibersskeletal and smooth muscle cells; elongated
skeletal muscle tissuepackaged into the skeletal muscles, organs that attach to and cover the skeleton
voluntary musclesubject to conscious control
cardiac muscle tissueoccurs only in the heart, where it constitutes the bulk of the heart walls
smooth muscle tissuefound in the walls of hollow visceral organs, such as the stomach, urinary bladder, and respiratory passages
excitability; responsiveness (of muscle)ability of a cell to receive and respond to a stimulus by changing its membrane potential
contractabilityability to shorten forcibly when adequately stimulated
extensibilitythe ability to extend or stretch
elasticitythe ability of a muscle cell to recoil and resume its resting length after stretching
epimysiumoutside of the muscle; an "overcoat" of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the whole muscle
perimysiumlayer of dense irregular connective tissue "around the muscle"
endomysium"within the muscle"; a wispy sheath of connective tissue that surrounds each individual muscle fiber
originattachment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during muscular contractions
insertionmovable attachment of muscle
direct; fleshy attachmentsthe epimysium of the muscle is fused to the periosteum of a bone or perichondrium of a cartilage
indirect attachmentsthe muscles connective tissue wrappings extend beyond the muscle
tendoncord of dense irregular connective tissue attaching muscle to bone
aponeurosisfibrous or membranous sheet connecting a muscle and the part it moves
sarcolemmathe plasma membrane of muscle fiber
sarcoplasmthe cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
myofibrilsrodlike bundle of contractile filaments found in muscle fibers
striationsstripe like visual features found in skeletal muscle; consist of alternating light and dark striations that can be observed using just a simple light microscope
sarcomerethe smallest contractile unit of muscle; extends from one z disc to the next
myofilamentfilament that constitutes myofibrils of two types; actin and myosin
actina cytoskeletal element; a contractile protein of muscle
myosinone of the principal contractile proteins found in muscle
A bandsregion of a striated muscle sarcomere that contains myosin thick filaments
I bandsregion of a striated muscle sarcomere that contains thin filaments
Z disc/linedefines the boundaries of a muscle sarcomere
thick filamentsbipolar polymers and the protein myosin is its major component approximately 16nm
think filamentsa type of myofilament that is made up of actin, troponin, and tropomyosin molecules; approximately 7-9nm in diameter
cross bridgesthe globular head of a myosin molecule; projects from a myosin filament in muscle and in the sliding filament hypothesis of muscle contraction is held to attach temporarily to an adjacent actin filament and draw it into the A band of a sarcomere between the myosin filaments
tropomyosina fibrous protein extractable from muscle
troponingroup of proteins found in skeletal and heart (cardiac) muscle fibers that regulate muscular contraction
sarcoplasmic reticulumspecialized endoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells
T tubulesalso called transverse tubules; extensions of the cell membrane that penetrate into the centre of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells
contractionto shorten or develop tension, an ability highly developed in muscle cells
sliding filament model of contractionproposed mechanism of muscle contraction where the actin & myosin filaments of striated muscle slide over each other to shorten the length of the muscle fibers; myosin-binding sites on the actin filaments are exposed when calcium ions bind to troponin molecules in these filaments
action potentiala large transient depolarization event, including polarity reversal, that is propagated along the membrane of a muscle cell or an axon of a neuron
neuromuscular junctionalso called motor end plate; region where a motor neuron comes into close contact with a skeletal muscle cells
axon terminalthe bulbous distal ending of the terminal branches of an axon where neurotransmitters are released
synaptic cleftfluid-filled space at the synapse
motor end platealso called the neuromuscular junction; region where a motor neuron comes into close contact with a skeletal muscle cells
acetylcholine (ACh)chemical transmitter substance released by some nerve endings
synaptic vesiclessmall membranous sacs containing neurotransmitter
ACh receptorsa membrane protein that binds to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
acetylcholinesterase(AChE) enzyme that degrades acetylcholine and terminates its action at the neuromuscular junction and synapses
refractory periodperiod of time during which an organ or cell is incapable of repeating a particular action
motor unita motor neuron and all the muscle cells it stimulates
muscle twitchthe response of a muscle to a single brief threshold stimulus
latent periodthe first period of a simple muscle contraction, being the interval between the stimulus being applied and the contraction occurring, usually around 0.01 seconds; the period from adsorption to the onset of cell lysis during bacteriophage development
graded muscle responsesnormal muscle contraction is more sustained, and it can be modified by input from the nervous system to produce varying amounts of force
temporal summationsummation in the nervous system in which a single presynaptic neuron involves in the production of multiple subthresholds over a period of time
recruitment; multiple motor unit summationactivation of additional motor units to accomplish an increase in contractile strength in a muscle
threshold stimuliweakest stimulus capable of producing a response in an excitable tissue
muscle tonelow levels of contractile activity in relaxed muscle; keeps the muscle healthy and ready to act
creatine phosphate (CP)compound that serves as an alternative energy source for muscle tissue
glycolysisbreakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid- an anaerobic process
lactic acidproduct of anaerobic metabolism, especially in muscle
aerobic respirationrespiration in which oxygen is consumed and glucose is broken down entirely; water, carbon dioxide, and large amounts of ATP are the final products
muscle fatiguereduced capacity of a muscle to perform work as a result of repeated contractions and accumulation of lactic acid in anaerobic cell respiration
oxygen debtstate that arises in very active muscles when insufficient oxygen is supplied by the lungs, causing the muscle tissue to respire anaerobically with the production of lactic acid



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