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How much does the brain weigh?about 1.5kg
What does the nervous system consist of?The brain, spinal chrordand peripheral nerves
What are nerve cells called?Neurons
What are the 3 main kinds of neurons called?SENSORY NEURONS, MOTOR NEURONS and INTERNEURONS
SENSORY NEURONS are coupled to receptors specialised to:Detect and respond to different attributes of the internal and external environment. The receptors are sensitive to changes in light, sound, mechanical and chemical stimuli promoting the senses of sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell.
What do MOTORNEURONS do?Control the activity of the muscles and are responsible for all forms of behaviour including speech.
What do INTERNEURONS do?Mediate simple reflexes as well as being responsible for the highest functions of the brain.
What are GLIAL CELLS?Contribute to the development of the nervous system and the function of the adult brain. Do not transmit information in the way NEURONS do.
What does a NEURONS architecture consist of?A cell body and two set of additional compartments called 'processors'
What is the job of the AXONS?To transmit information from one neuron to another.
What is the job of the DENDRITES?To receive the information being transmitted by the AXONS of other neurons.
The brain and spinal cord are connected to:sensory receptors and muscles through long axons making up PERIPHERAL NERVES.
What are the two functions of the SPINAL CORD?1. It is the seat of simple refexes e.g. the knee jerk. 2. More complex refexes. Forms a highway between the body and the brain in both directions.
What does the brain consist of?The BRAIN STEM and the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES
What is the 'BETWEEN BRAIN' called?the DIENCEPHALON.
What does the 'MID BRAIN' contain?Groups of neurons,all of which project up to cerebral hemispheres. It is thought that these can modulate the activity of neurons in the higher centres of the brain to promote such functions as sleep or attention.
The diencephalon is divided into two very different areas called what?the THALAMUS and the HYPOTHALAMUS
What does the THALAMUS relay?impulses from all sensory systems to the cerebral cortex, which in turn sends messages back to the thalamus.
What does the HYPOTHALAMUS control?functions such as eating and drinking, and it also regulates the release of hormones involved in sexual functions.
What does the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE consist of?a core, the basal ganglia, and an extensive but thin surrounding sheet of neurons making up the grey matter of the cerebral cortex. The basal ganglia play a central role in the initiation and control of movement.
What is the most developed area of the brain (in humans)?The CORTICAL TISSUE (4 x bigger than in gorillas)
The CORTICAL TISSUE is divided into a large number of discrete areas, each distinguishable in terms of its layers and connections. The functions of many of these areas arethe visual, auditory, and olfactory areas, the sensory areas receiving from the skin (called the somaesthetic areas) and various motor areas
The pathways from the sensory receptors to the cortex and from cortex to the muscles cross over from one side to the other, thus:movements of the right side of the body are controlled by the left side of the cortex (and vice versa). Similarly, the left half of the body sends sensory signals to the right hemisphere such that, for example, sounds in the left ear mainly reach the right cortex. However, the two halves of the brain do not work in isolation - for the left and right cerebral cortex are connected by a large fibre tract called the CORPUS CALLOSUM.
What is the CEREBRUM CORTEX required for?Voluntary actions, language, speech and higher functions such as thinking and remembering.



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