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Oceanography: Chemistry template



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QuestionsAnswers
AcidA substances that donates protons in solution, lowering the pH.
AnoxiaA complete absence of dissolved oxygen.
Anthropogenic CO2Carbon dioxide released as a result of human activities.
AtmosphereGases held close to a planet's surface by the force of gravity.
BaseA substance that accepts protons in a chemical reaction; raising the pH.
Biologically Important NutrientsSubstances necessary for the growth of Phytoplankton.
BiosphereThe sum of all life on Earth and the processes governed by it.
BufferA substance that inhibits a change in pH.
Carbon CycleThe storage and transfer of carbon among various living and nonliving earth reservoirs.
Chemical OceanographyThe study of the chemistry of the world ocean.
ChemistryThe science of the composition, structure, properties and behavior of matter.
CompoundsSubstances composed of more than one element bonded together.
Conservative ElementsElements whose relative ratios do not vary regardless of salinity.
Covalent Bond (Strong)A type of chemical bond in which electrons in the outer orbitals are shared.
DissolvingThe process whereby one substance is dissolved into another to form a solution.
ElementsSubstances comprised of atoms of a single type that cannot be divided into other substances.
Hydrogen Bond (Weak)Weak chemical bond formed between the electronegative oxygen atom of one water molecule and the electropositive hydrogen atom of another water molecule.
HydrosphereAll of the waters of the Earth.
HypoxiaA condition of low dissolved oxygen concentration in a body of water.
Keeling CurveThe graph that depicts the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Limiting FactorsAny factor that limits the productivity of autotrophs.
MacronutrientsThe dissolved chemical substances in greatest demand by photosynthetic organisms.
Major ConstituentsThose dissolved inorganic compounds in seawater whose concentration exceeds 1 part per million.
MicronutrientsThose dissolved substances required in small amounts by autotrophs.
MoleculesSubstances composed of two or more atoms.
Oxygen Minium ZonesA region of the world ocean where the concentration of oxygen reaches a minimum at depth, caused by the biological utilization of oxygen at a rate faster than its resupply by physical processes.
pHThe negative log of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
PhytoplanktonDrifting photosynthetic microbes.
Polar MoleculeA molecule exhibiting positive and negative charges on different ends of the molecule.
PrecipitatingThe coming out of solution of a dissolved substance.
Principle of Constant ProportionsThe constancy o of the ratios of the major constituents regardless of salinity.
Residence Time (General idea)The time that a dissolved substance spends in a particular reservoir.
SalinityThe concentration of dissolved salts in seawater.
SolubilityThe amount of a solute that can be dissolved by a solvent under a given set of conditions.
SourcesProcesses that add a substance or material to a reservoir.
Trace Elements=Minor ConstituentsElements whose concentration in seawater is less than 1 part per million. (Lead, Mercury and Iodide)
Water ColumnAn undefined column of water stretching from the surface face to depth.
Pacific PlateAn oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean. It is the largest plate.
Nazca PlateNamed after the Nazca region of southern Peru, is an oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin off the west coast of South America. The ongoing subduction, along the Peru-Chile Trench, of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate is largely responsible for the Andean orogeny.
Cocos PlateAn oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of Central America, named for Cocos Island, which rides upon it.
South American PlateA continental tectonic plate which includes the continent of South America and also a sizeable region of the Atlantic Ocean seabed extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
North American PlateA tectonic plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Cuba, Bahamas, and parts of Iceland and the Azores. It extends eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Chersky Range in eastern Siberia. The plate includes both continental and oceanic crust.
African PlateA tectonic plate which includes the continent of Africa, as well as oceanic crust which lies between the continent and various surrounding ocean ridges.
Australian PlateA major tectonic plate that includes the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean, and extends northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters. It was formed by the fusion of Indian and Australian plates 43 million years ago
Indian PlateA tectonic plate that was originally a part of the ancient continent of Gondwana from which it split off, eventually becoming a major plate.
Shelf BreakThe transition between continental shelf and slope.
Coral ReefsVery productive habitat with high species diversity. Found in warm, clear, shallow tropical waters.
Mid-Atlanic RidgeA mid-ocean ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world.
East Pacific RiseA mid-oceanic ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary located along the floor of the Pacific Ocean.
Scientific MethodObservation, Hypothesis, Test Hypothesis, Analyze data, Reject Hypothesis? (yes or no)
Problems people create for the ocean:Global warming, Ozone depletion, habitat destruction, overfishing, marine pollution, Eutrophication, oil spills and invasive species.
Transform BoundariesA plate boundary where two plates move horizontally relative to each other.



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