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Optometry template



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QuestionsAnswers
EpitheliumFirst layer of the cornea. asks as the first line of defence against infection and injury
Bowman's MembraneSecond layer of the cornea. Acts as an achor to the epithelium.
StromaThird layer of the cornea. It is the main body of the cornea and contributes rigidity.
Descement's MembraneFourth layer of the cornea. Contributes rigidity.
EndotheliumFifth layer of the cornea. Serves as pumps to maintain proper fluid balance.
UveaIris, Ciliary body and Choroid
Axial LengthLength of the from front to back.
AdnexaOrbit, Extra ocular muscles, eyelids, tear-producing and tear-draining lacrimal apparatus.
OrbitComprising 7 bones that house the globe, extra ocular muscles, blood vessels and nerves.
Medial RectusMoves eye inward toward the nose
Lateral RectusMoves the outward toward the temple.
Superior RectusMoves the eye upward.
Inferior RectusMoves the eye downward.
Superior ObliqueTwists the eye down and in.
Inferior ObliqueTwists the eye up and out.
AdductionThe movement eye both eye turning in.
AbductionThe movement of both eyes turning out.
CiliaEyelashes
Function of the eyelidsProtect from injury, exclude light, and aid in the lubrication of the ocular surface.
Palpebral FissureThe almond-shaped opening between the upper and lower lids.
TrichiasisEyelashes that grow inward and rub against the eye.
Optical SystemCornea, iris, pupil, crystalline lens, vitreous, retina and optic nerve.
Binocular VisionEyes are directed to a single target and are perfectly aligned.
FusionThe blending of images from each eye so that the person perceives a single view.
Tarsal Plate (Tarsus)A dense, plate-like framework, which gives the eyelids their firmness and shape.
Orbicular OculiA circular muscle that closes the eye when it contracts, as in winking.
Levator PalpebraeRaises the upper lid when it contracts.
Bulbar ConjunctivaA thin mucous membrane that lines the outer surface of the eyeball.
Palpebral ConjunctivaA thin mucous membrane the line the inner surface of the eyelids.
PunctumTiny opening located on the upper and lower eyelid margin near the nose.
DacryocystitisInflammation of the lacrimal sac
Medial CanthusThe point where the lids meet on the nasal side of the palpebral fissure.
Lateral CanthusThe point where the lids meet on the temporal side of the palpebral fissure.
FornixA loose pocket of conjunctival tissue in the area where the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva meet beneath the lids.
Lacrimal ApparatusOrbital structures that produce tears and the ducts that drain the excess fluid from the front of the eye.
The three layers of the tear filmOuter oily layer, middle aqueous layer and the innermost layer of mucinous (sticky) fluid.
Meibomian GlandA row of tiny holes on the back margin of the eyelid that secretes the oily layer of the tear film.
Lacrimal GlandProduces the aqueous layer of the tear film.
Goblet CellsProduces the mucinous (sticky) layer of the tear film... Innermost layer
Iris dilater muscleContracts to dilate the pupil.
Iris sphincter muscle.Contracts to make the pupil smaller.
Function of the ciliary bodySecretes the aqueous humor
Function of the irisControls the amount of light entering the eye.
Function of the choroidSupplies nourishing blood to the outer layers of the retina.
Anterior chamber AngleThe junction of the cornea and the iris.
Trabecular MeshworkAspongy structure that filters the aqeous fluid and controls its rate of flow out of the eye.
Canal of SchlemmA conduit in the sclera.
Aqueous veinsCollector channels.
OphthalmologistA medical doctor, specializing in the prevention, diagnosis and medical as well as surgical treatment of vision and eye diseases.
OptometristPrescribe eyeglasses and contact lenses as well as detect eye disease.
OpticianDispenses eyeglasses and contact lenses
OrthoptistTest visual function, evaluate eye muscle disorders, and evaluating impairments in binocular vision such as double vision.
OcularistFabricates and fits patients with prostheses.
JCAHPOJoint Commission on Allied Health Personnel in Ophthalmology.
COACertified Ophthalmic Assistant
COTCertified Ophthalmic Technologist
COMTcertified Ophthalmic Medical Technologist
CanaliculusDrains tears into the lacrimal sac.
LimbusThe junction between the sclera and the cornea.
Anterior ChamberSmall compartment between the cornea and the iris.
Posterior ChamberThe space between the back of the iris and the front of the vitreous
SymptomSomething the patient feels.
SignChanges observed by the physician.
IschemiaA severe reduction of blood supply to any part of the body.
CongentitalPresent from the time of birth.
Proptosis (exophthalmos)Protruding eye ball.
EdemaSwelling from large amounts of fluid.
Orbital CellulitisInfection of tisuues in the orbit.
DiplopiaDouble vision
NystagmusThe eye shifts involuntarly in a rhythmic beating motion.
Keratoconjunctivitis siccaDry eye syndrome
KeratitisInflammation of the cornea.
BiomicroscopeThe slit lamp
Provides two thirds of the focusing powerThe cornea
Provides one third of the focusing powerThe lens
VitreousA clear, jelly-like substance the nourishes the eye and gives it shape.
Name thefive layers of the cornea in orderCorneal Epithelium, Bowman's Membrane, Stroma, Descement's Membrane and Corneal Endothelium
RodsNight vision and Peripheral vision. Located in the periphery of the retina.
ConesSharp central Vision and color. Located in the macula.
FoveaCenter of the macula
Function of the maclaProvides sharp central vision
Three types of infectionBacterial, fungal and viral
IschemiaSever reduction in blood supply.
AcuteInflammation that flares up quickly and remains for a short period of time.
ChronicInflammation that persists for a long period of time.
HypoxiaLack of oxygen.
SyndromeA set of signs and symptoms that is characteristics of a specific condition or disease.
EctropionOutward turning of the eyelid.
EntropionInward turning of the eyelid.
Most common form of glaucomaOpen-angle glaucoma
Type of glaucoma that accounts for 10% of the populationAngle-closure glaucoma
Symptoms of angle-closure glaucomaPainful red eye, blurred vision and halos around lights
AnisocoriaUnequal size ofthe pupils
CataractOpacification of the lens.
PresbyopiaInability to read due to age.



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