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Thyroid Functions template



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Where is the thyroid gland located?Highly vascularized, butterfly shaped gland located below the larynx.
Describe the function and control of the thyroid hormones?Almost every cell in the body has receptors for the thyroid hormones -Generally, the hormones stimulates enzymes associated with glucose oxidation. -They then increase BMR, oxygen utilization, and heat production -They also play a role in nervous system tissue growth, the skeletal system, reproduction, and in blood pressure maintenance -Regulation occurs as the hypothalamus monitors hormone levels and stimulates the anterior pituitary to release TSH as needed.
What is the structure of the thyroid gland?Highly vascularized, butterfly shaped gland -Consists of two lobes connected by an isthmus -There is sometimes a pyramidal lobe which extends superiorly from the isthmus -The majority of the gland is the thyroid follicles and follicular cells around them -These cells produce the glycoprotein, thyroglobulin and the two hormones which together make up the colloid. -Thyroxine(T4)Secreted at the highest levels -Converted in the lungs and the liver to T3(Based on how many iodides are attached) -Triiodothyronine(T3) -Released in lower quantities that T4 but it has 10 times the potency of T4 -Most is converted into T4 at the target cell.
What is Calcitonin(CT)?This is also a thyroid hormone, but it is produced by the parafollicular cells(C cells) -It inhibits the breakdown of bone and it increases the bodies ability to increase the uptake of calcium and phosphate -The net result is that blood calcium and phosphate levels decreased -It decreases bone breakdown by decreasing osteoclastic activity -Although it is not known for sure, it is thought that calcitonin levels are regulated by(-) feedback and that blood calcium levels control calcitonin release with NO pituitary action. -This is more important hormone in children -It is antagonistic to parathyroid hormone(PTH)
Describe the synthesis of Hormones in the thyroid?Follicular cells produce thyroglobulin which is released into the lumen of the follicles as COLLOID which are pigs for Iodide -Iodide(I-) is trapped from the bloodstream and is converted to I2 and secreted into the follicle(Attachment of Iodine to tyrosine to form T1 and T2 occurs in the follicle.
Where is the parathyroid glands located?These are imbedded with the lateral lobes of the thyroid gland, usually superior and inferior fashion on the posterior surface
What cells produce parathyroid hormone(PTH)?Chief cells and Oxyphil cells
Where are the adrenal glands located?located just superiorly to the kidneys -Also called the suprarenal glands
Describe Chief cells and oxyphil cells?Chief cells although smaller, are the most numerous and are the primary synthesizer of parathyroid hormone(PTH) which antagonistic to calcitonin. -Oxyphil cells thought to be a reserve producer of PTH, but are not fully understood.
Describe the anatomy of the adrenal glands?They are highly vascularized -The glands can be divided into an outer cortex and an inner medulla -The adrenal cortex can be divided further into three zone: Zona Glomerulosa, Zona Fasiculata, and Zona Reticularis
Describe parathyroid hormone(PTH)?PTH and calcitonin are antagonistic -Must then also be important in blood calcium and phosphate homeostasis -PTH will increase osteoclastic activity(this increases calcium and phosphate in the blood) -Increase calcium and magnesium reabsorption from the kidneys -Calcium is vitally important for: Blood clotting, muscle contractions, Nerve conduction -Increased calcium absorption from the gut by promoting the formation of the active form of vitamin D(Calcitriol) -Increases urine phosphate excretion -The net effect of PTH is to increase levels of calcium and magnesium and to decrease the levels of phosphate in the blood.
What are the three groups of hormones produced by the glomerulosa, fasiculata, and reticularis? Give an example of each1)Zona Glomerulosa=Mineralcoticoids(Aldosterone) 2)Zona Fasiculata=Glucocorticoids(Cortisone) 3)Zona Reticularis=Gonadocorticoids(Estrogens & Androgens)
What is the function of aldosterone and how does it accomplish this function?Aldosterone acts on the kidney tubule cells to increase sodium reabsorption and to increase the excretion of potassium -It can provide very precise control over these electrolytes as the effects only last ~20 minutes. -H+ loss -Cl- and HCO3 reabsorption -Water reabsorption via osmosis



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